Bootstrapping Angular Application

  1. Then entry point to every Angular application is the main.ts file which contains this last line:
  2. The platformBrowserDynamic() part of this line of code indicates that we are about to boot Angular in a browser environment. As Angular can be used in Javascript host environments asides the browser (e.g. on the server or in a web worker), its thus imperative that we specify the environment in which our App is to be booted.
  3. The bootstrapModule() function helps bootstrap our root module taking in the root module as its argument.
  4. AppModule is our root module which is the entry module for our application, this can actually be any of the modules in our application but by convention AppModule is used as the root module.
  5. In our AppModule, we then need to specify the component that will serve as the entry point component for our application. This happens in our app.module.ts file where we import the entry component (conventionally AppComponent) and supply it as the only item in our bootstrap array inside the NgModule configuration object.

To put it short

  1. platformBrowserDynamic() to determine the Broswer or platform in which your angular app is about to run
  2. bootstrapModule() function to boot your entry module(app.module.ts) by supplying the module as an argument.
  3. app.module.ts is the root module that would specify the entry point component in the module configuration object.

How angular Works Internally

1.What Is an Angular Component?
An Angular application is a tree of Angular components.The component contains the data & user interaction logic that defines how the View looks and behaves. A view in Angular refers to a template (HTML).Components are like the basic building block in an Angular application.Components are defined using the @component decorator. A component has a selector, template, style and other properties, using which it specifies the metadata required to process the component. Angular components are a subset of directives. Unlike directives, components always have a template and only one component can be instantiated per an element in a template.

Components consist of three main building block

  1. Template
  2. Class
  3. MetaData

2.Angularjs vs Angular
Angularjs and Angular should be treated as two different frameworks. Here are few comparisons as below


AngularJS Angular
Controllers WebComponents
AngularJS is written in JavaScript.

Angular uses Microsoft’s TypeScript language, which is a superset of ECMAScript 6 (ES6). This has the combined advantages of the TypeScript features, like type declarations, and the benefits of ES6, like iterators and lambdas.
AngularJS is based on model-view-controller(MVC) Design and MVVM(Model-view-view-model) by two way data binding .In AngularJS the MVC pattern is implemented in JavaScript and HTML. The view is defined in HTML, while the model and controller are implemented in JavaScript. The controller accepts input, converts it into commands and sends the commands to the model and the view Angular 2 is more of component based architecture. You can assume everything as component like directives, services and so on. While directives and services are actually for the support of base components, they are also defined in similar fashion. A base component contains of dependencies, a view details and class declaration which may be considered as controller. So a well defined component consist of individual set of MVC architecture.Angular 2, controllers and $scope were replaced by components and directives. Components are directives with a template. They deal with a view of the application and logic on the page.
HTML markup is the View, Controller is the Controller & the Service (when it used to retrieve data) is the model. template is the View, class is the Controller & the Service (when it used to retrieve data) is the model.
To bind an image/property or an event with AngularJS, you have to remember the right ng directive. Angular focuses on “( )” for event binding and “[ ]” for property binding.
No Mobile Support Angular 2 and 4 both feature mobile support.
2-way binding, AngularJS reduced the development effort and time. However, by creating more processing on the client side, page load was taking considerable time. Angular implements unidirectional tree-based change detection and uses Hierarchical Dependency Injection system. This significantly boosts performance for the framework.
two-way data binding in Angular 2 is supported using the event and the property binding. We can use ngModel directive to use two-way data binding.

3.What are Directives
Directives are something that introduce new syntax / markup. They are markers on the DOM element which provides some special behavior to DOM elements and tells AngularJS’s HTML compiler to attach.

There are three kinds of directives in an Angular 2 application.
Angular Component also refers to a directive with a template which deals with View of the Application and also contains the business logic. It is very useful to divide your Application into smaller parts. In other words, we can say that Components are directives that are always associated with the template directly.

Structural directives
Structural directives are able to change the behavior of DOM by adding and removing DOM elements. The directive NgFor, NgSwitch, and NgIf is the best example of structural directives.

Attribute directives
Attribute directives are able to change the behavior of DOM. The directive NgStyle is an example of Attribute directives which are used to change styles elements at the same time.

4.Difference between Component and Directive
Directives add behaviour to an existing DOM element or an existing component instance. One example use case for a directive would be to log a click on an element.

import {Directive} from '@angular/core';

    selector: "[logOnClick]",
    hostListeners: {
        'click': 'onClick()',
class LogOnClick {
    constructor() {}
    onClick() { console.log('Element clicked!'); }
<button logOnClick>I log when clicked!</button>

A component, rather than adding/modifying behaviour, actually creates its own view (hierarchy of DOM elements) with attached behaviour. An example use case for this might be a contact card component:

import {Component, View} from '@angular/core';

  selector: 'contact-card',
  template: `
class ContactCard {
  @Input() name: string
  @Input() city: string
  constructor() {}
<contact-card [name]="'foo'" [city]="'bar'"></contact-card>
Directive Component
They are used to create behavior to an existing DOM element. A component is a directive with a template and the @Component decorator is actually a @Directive decorator extended with template-oriented features. It used to shadow DOM to create encapsulates visual behavior. It is used to create UI widgets.
They help us to create re-usable components It helps us to break up our application in smaller component
We cannot create pipes using Attribute / Structural directive Pipes can be defined by component
We can define many directive per DOM element We can present only one component per DOM element
@directive keyword is used to define metadata @component keyword is used to define metadata

5.Directive Lifecycle

For the Directives there are three hooks provided for different event based on which we can take actions upon
ngOnChanges – It occurs when Angular sets data bound property. Here, we can get current and previous value of changed object. It is raised before the initialization event for directive.

ngOnInit – It occurs after Angular initializes the data-bound input properties.

ngDoCheck – It is raised every time when Angular detects any change.

ngOnDestroy – It is used for cleanup purposes and it is raised just before Angular destroys the directive. It is very much important in memory leak issues by un-subscribing observables and detaching event handlers.

6.What are Types of Databinding in Angular

  1. Interpolation / String Interpolation (one-way data binding)
  2. Property Binding (one-way data binding)
  3. Event Binding (one-way data binding)
  4. Two-Way Binding

7.What is Interpolation?
Interpolation(one-way data binding) allows you to define properties in a component class, and communicate these properties to and from the template.
nterpolation is a technique that allows the user to bind a value to a UI element.Interpolation binds the data one-way. This means that when value of the field bound using interpolation changes, it is updated in the page as well. It cannot change the value of the field. An object of the component class is used as data context for the template of the component. So the value to be bound on the view has to be assigned to a field in the component class.String Interpolation uses template expressions in double curly {{ }} braces to display data from the component, the special syntax {{ }}, also known as moustache syntax. The {{ }} contains JavaScript expression which can be run by Angular and the output will be inserted into the HTML.



import { Component } from '@angular/core';

  selector: 'app-root',
  templateUrl: './app.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./app.component.css']
export class AppComponent {
  title = 'stockMarket';


    Welcome to {{ title }}!

8.What is Property Binding (one-way data binding)?
Property binding is used to bind values to the DOM properties of the HTML elements. Like interpolation, property binding is a one-way binding technique. Property bindings are evaluated on every browser event and any changes made to the objects in the event, are applied to the properties.There are 3 types of Property Binding


import {Component} from '@angular/core';

selector: 'my-app',
<h1>My First Angular App</h1>
<img [src]="imageUrl">
<img bind-src="imageUrl">'

export class AppComponent { 
imageUrl = '';
  1. Component property binding works within component element to bind parent component property into child component property. In the diagram the arrows and rectangles in red color are displaying the functionality related to component property binding.
  2. Element property binding works within HTML element and it binds a component property to a DOM property. In the diagram the arrows and rectangle in green color are displaying the functionality related to element property binding.
  3. Directive property binding works within HTML element with angular directives such as NgClass and NgStyle. In directive property binding a component property or any angular expression is bound to angular directive. In the diagram the arrows and rectangles in light blue color are displaying the functionality related to directive property binding.

9.What is Event Binding(one-way data binding)?
Event binding allows us to work in reverse from property binding. We can send information from the view, to the component class. Such information usually involves a click, hover or typing.

import {Component} from '@angular/core';

selector: 'my-app',
<h1>My First Angular App</h1>
<img [src]="imageUrl" (click)='myMethod()'>
<img [src]="imageUrl" on-click='myMethod()'>'

myMethod() {

10.What is Two way Binding?
Two-way data binding really just boils down to event binding and property binding.

<input [(ngModel)]="username">
<p>Hello {{username}}!</p>

The above code turns out to be

<input [value]="username" (input)="username = $">
<p>Hello {{username}}!</p>
  1. [value]=”username” – Binds the expression username to the input element’s value property
  2. (input)=”expression” – Is a declarative way of binding an expression to the input element’s input event (yes there’s such event)
  3. username = $ – The expression that gets executed when the input event is fired
  4. $event – Is an expression exposed in event bindings by Angular, which has the value of the event’s payload

11.What is the Difference between One way Data Binding and Two Way Data Binding

One Way Data Binding Two Way Data Binding
In one-way data binding, the value of the Model is inserted into an HTML (DOM) element and there is no way to update the Model from the View. In two-way binding automatic synchronization of data happens between the Model and the View (whenever the Model changes it will be reflected in the View and vice-versa)
One way data Binding flow would be
(Model($scope) –> View)
Two way data Binding flow would be
(Model($scope) –> View and View –> Model($scope))
Angular 1 and Angular 2:

<h2 ng-bind=""></h2>
<h2 [innerText]=""></h2></pre>
Angular 1 and Angular 2:

<input ngModel=""/>
<input [(ngModel)]=""/></pre>

12.What is Dirty Checking?
Angular checks whether a value has changed in view and not yet synchronized across the app.Our Angular app keeps track of the values of the current watches. Angular walks down the $watch list, and, if the updated value has not changed from the old value, it continues down the list. If the value has changed, the app records the new value and continues down the $watch list.

Angular has a concept of ‘digest cycle’. You can consider it as a loop. In which Angular checks if there are any changes to all the variables watched by all the $scopes(internally $watch() and $apply() functions are getting bonded with each variable defined under $scope).So if you have $scope.myVar defined in your controller (that means this variable ‘myVar’ was marked for being watched) then you are explicitly telling Angular to monitor the changes on ‘myVar’ in each iteration of the loop. So when the value of ‘myVar’ changes, every time $watch() notices and execute $apply() to apply the changes in DOM.

How it Works
First Cycle

  1. Get a watch from list
  2. Check whether item has been changed
  3. If there is no change in item then
  4. No Action taken, move to next item in watch list

Second Cycle

  1. Get a watch from list
  2. Check whether item has been changed
  3. If there is Change in an item
  4. DOM needs to be updated, return to digest loop

14.What is difference between [ngClass] and [class]?
When multiple classes should potentially be added, the NgClass prefer NgClass. NgClass should receive an object with class names as keys and expressions that evaluate to true or false as values

<div [ngClass]="myClasses">
myClasses = {
  important: this.isImportant,
  inactive: !this.isActive,
  saved: this.isSaved,
  long: > 6

If you want to apply a single class to DOM element rather than multiple classes go for [Class]

<div [class]="isGreen?'green':'cyan'">

The Other way of applying class is using Singular Version of Class Binding
.In this method either class style would be applied or it would be left without anystyle

<div []="expression()">

The expression is a function which returns true or false value.If true then green style would be applied or no style would be applied

15.What is difference between ngStyle and ngClass?
ng-style is used to interpolate javascript object into style attribute, not css class and And ng-class directive translates your object into class attribute.


15.What is Service?

16.What is Provider?

17.What is difference between Factory vs Service vs Provider?

18.Difference between @Inject vs @Injectable

19.What are Reactive Forms

20.How Dependency Injection is done in Angular?

21.Difference between Subscribe, Transform, Map and Filter?

22.Navigator vs Router

23.What is Lazy Loading in Angular

24.What is Difference between Subscribe and Promise?

25.Lifecycle of Angular App

26.How to Create Custom Event in Angular?