Bootstrapping Angular Application

  1. Then entry point to every Angular application is the main.ts file which contains this last line:
     
     platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule); 
    
  2. The platformBrowserDynamic() part of this line of code indicates that we are about to boot Angular in a browser environment. As Angular can be used in Javascript host environments asides the browser (e.g. on the server or in a web worker), its thus imperative that we specify the environment in which our App is to be booted.
  3. The bootstrapModule() function helps bootstrap our root module taking in the root module as its argument.
  4. AppModule is our root module which is the entry module for our application, this can actually be any of the modules in our application but by convention AppModule is used as the root module.
  5. In our AppModule, we then need to specify the component that will serve as the entry point component for our application. This happens in our app.module.ts file where we import the entry component (conventionally AppComponent) and supply it as the only item in our bootstrap array inside the NgModule configuration object.
     
     bootstrap:[AppComponent]
    

To put it short

  1. platformBrowserDynamic() to determine the Broswer or platform in which your angular app is about to run
  2. bootstrapModule() function to boot your entry module(app.module.ts) by supplying the module as an argument.
  3. app.module.ts is the root module that would specify the entry point component in the module configuration object.

How angular Works Internally

1.What Is an Angular Component?
Components are like the basic building block in an Angular application. Components are defined using the @component decorator. A component has a selector, template, style and other properties, using which it specifies the metadata required to process the component.An Angular application is a tree of Angular components. Angular components are a subset of directives. Unlike directives, components always have a template and only one component can be instantiated per an element in a template.

2.Angularjs vs Angular
Angularjs and Angular should be treated as two different frameworks.Here are few comparisons as below

AngularJS Angular
Controllers WebComponents
AngularJS is written in JavaScript.

Angular uses Microsoft’s TypeScript language, which is a superset of ECMAScript 6 (ES6). This has the combined advantages of the TypeScript features, like type declarations, and the benefits of ES6, like iterators and lambdas.
Javascript Typescript
AngularJS is based on model-view-controller Design.The model is the central component that expresses the application’s behavior and manages its data, logic, and rules. The view generates an output based on the information in the model. The controller accepts input, converts it into commands and sends the commands to the model and the view Angular 2, controllers and $scope were replaced by components and directives. Components are directives with a template. They deal with a view of the application and logic on the page. There are two kinds of directives in Angular 2. These are structural directives that alter the layout of the DOM by removing and replacing its elements, and attributive directives that change the behavior or appearance of a DOM element.
To bind an image/property or an event with AngularJS, you have to remember the right ng directive. Angular focuses on “( )” for event binding and “[ ]” for property binding.

No Mobile Support Angular 2 and 4 both feature mobile support.
2-way binding, AngularJS reduced the development effort and time. However, by creating more processing on the client side, page load was taking considerable time. Angular implements unidirectional tree-based change detection and uses Hierarchical Dependency Injection system. This significantly boosts performance for the framework.

3.What are Directives
Directives are something that introduce new syntax / markup. They are markers on the DOM element which provides some special behavior to DOM elements and tells AngularJS’s HTML compiler to attach.

There are three kinds of directives in an Angular 2 application.
Components
Angular Component also refers to a directive with a template which deals with View of the Application and also contains the business logic. It is very useful to divide your Application into smaller parts. In other words, we can say that Components are directives that are always associated with the template directly.

Structural directives
Structural directives are able to change the behavior of DOM by adding and removing DOM elements. The directive NgFor, NgSwitch, and NgIf is the best example of structural directives.

Attribute directives
Attribute directives are able to change the behavior of DOM. The directive NgStyle is an example of Attribute directives which are used to change styles elements at the same time.

4.Difference between Component and Directive

Directive Component
They are used to create behavior to an existing DOM element. It used to shadow DOM to create encapsulates visual behavior. It is used to create UI widgets.
They help us to create re-usable components It helps us to break up our application in smaller component
We cannot create pipes using Attribute / Structural directive Pipes can be defined by component
We can define many directive per DOM element We can present only one component per DOM element
@directive keyword is used to define metadata @component keyword is used to define metadata

5.Directive Lifecycle
For the Directives there are three hooks provided for different event based on which we can take actions upon
ngOnChanges – It occurs when Angular sets data bound property. Here, we can get current and previous value of changed object. It is raised before the initialization event for directive.

ngOnInit – It occurs after Angular initializes the data-bound input properties.

ngDoCheck – It is raised every time when Angular detects any change.

ngOnDestroy – It is used for cleanup purposes and it is raised just before Angular destroys the directive. It is very much important in memory leak issues by un-subscribing observables and detaching event handlers.

6.What is the Difference between One way Data Binding and Two Way Data Binding
In one-way data binding, the value of the Model is inserted into an HTML (DOM) element and there is no way to update the Model from the View. In two-way binding automatic synchronization of data happens between the Model and the View (whenever the Model changes it will be reflected in the View and vice-versa)

7.What is Interpolation?
Interpolation(one-way data binding) allows you to define properties in a component class, and communicate these properties to and from the template.

8.What is EventBinding?
EventBinding(one-way data binding)

9.What is PropertyBinding?
PropertyBinding(one-way data binding)

10.What is Two-Way Binding?
Two-Way Binding

Why Spring Boot created?
There was lot of difficulty to setup Hibernate Datasource, Entity Manager, Session Factory, and Transaction Management. It takes a lot of time for a developer to set up a basic project using Spring with minimum functionality.

What Spring Boot does?
Spring Boot does all of those using AutoConfiguration and will take care of all the internal dependencies that your application needs — all you need to do is run your application. It follows “Opinionated Defaults Configuration” Approach to reduce Developer effort

How to use Spring Boot ?

Spring Version 4

  1. Spring Framework 4.0 provides support for several Java 8 features
  2. Java EE version 6 or above with the JPA 2.0 and Servlet 3.0 specifications
  3. Groovy Bean Definition DSL- external bean configuration using a Groovy DSL
  4. Core Container Improvements
    1. The @Lazy annotation can now be used on injection points, as well as on @Bean definitions.
    2. The @Description annotation has been introduced for developers using Java-based configuration
    3. Using generics as autowiring qualifiers
    4. Beans can now be ordered when they are autowired into lists and arrays. Both the @Order annotation and Ordered interface are supported.
    5. A generalized model for conditionally filtering beans has been added via the @Conditional annotation

Spring Version 5

  1. Functional programming with Kotlin
  2. Reactive Programming Model.The Reactive Streams API is officially part of Java 9. In Java 8, you will need to include a dependency for the Reactive Streams API specification.
  3. @Nullable and @NotNull annotations will explicitly mark nullable arguments and return values. This enables dealing null values at compile time rather than throwing NullPointerExceptions at runtime.
  4. Spring Framework 5.0 now supports candidate component index as an alternative to classpath scanning..Reading entities from the index rather than scanning the classpath.Loading the component index is cheap. Therefore the startup time with the index remains constant as the number of classes increase. While for a compoent scan the startup time increases significantly.
  5. requires Java 8 as a minimum JDK version.Spring 5 is fully compatible with Java 9.
  6. Servlet 3.1,JMS 2.0,JPA 2.1,Hibernate5,JAX-RS 2.0,Bean Validation 1.1,JUnit 5

Java 7 Features:

  1. Usage of Strings in Switch Statement
  2. Diamond Operator – the diamond operator allows you to write more compact (and readable) code by saving repeated type arguments
  3. Try with Resources
  4. Multiple Exception Handling
  5. Suppressed Exceptions
  6. Allows Binay Literals – Binary Literal are expressing Integer Values in terms of Binary Value by adding the prefix 0b or 0B to the integral value.For more on BinayLiteral click here

Java 8 Features:

  1. Lambda Expressions
  2. Java Stream API for Bulk Data Operations on Collections.
  3. Static and Default method in Functional Interfaces
  4. forEach() method in Iterable interface
  5. Functional Interfaces
  6. Collection API improvements

Java 9 Features:

  1. Factory Methods for Immutable List, Set, Map and Map.Entry
  2. Private methods in Interfaces
  3. Reactive Streams
  4. JShell: the interactive Java REPL

Java 10 Features:

  1. Local-Variable Type Inference
  2. Application Class-Data Sharing
  3. default set of root Certification Authority (CA) certificates in the JDK
  4. Garbage Collector Interface

Java 11 Features:

  1. Java 11 JDK is not free for usage on commercial purpose
  2. No need to compile.typing >>Java in command prompt will compile and run java
  3. Remove the Java EE and CORBA Modules –
  4. Java String Methods – isBlank(), lines(), strip(), stripLeading(), stripTrailing()

Why Lambda Expressions

Now Lets Iterate through the simple ArrayList

Without Lambda Expressions

List<Integer> numbers = Arrays.asList(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6);

for (int number : numbers) 
{
    System.out.println(number);
}

We iterate the collection externally, explicitly pulling out and processing the items one by one. Now through Lambda Expressions, we are using an internal iteration the JIT compiler could optimize it processing the items in parallel or in a different order. These optimizations are impossible if we iterate the collection externally as we are used to doing in Java and more in general with the imperative programming.

With Lambda Expressions

numbers.forEach((Integer value) -> System.out.println(value));

(or)

numbers.forEach(value -> System.out.println(value));

Apart from the above reason Lambdas allows us to

  • Enable to treat functionality as a method argument, or code as data.
  • A function that can be created without belonging to any class.
  • A lambda expression can be passed around as if it was an object and executed on demand.
  • It reduces the line of code.
  • It Supports Sequential and Parallel execution by passing behavior in methods with collection stream API
  • Using Stream API and lambda expression we can achieve higher efficiency (parallel execution) in the case of bulk operations on collections

Java 8 Lambda uses JVM Opcode – invokedynamic

The Following code will result in Anonymous class being created when you compile the code.
So if you have 10 anonymous classes then it would be 10 more classes like(ClassName$1.class,ClassName$2.class….ClassName$10.class) in the final jar.

AccountService accountServiceAnonymous = new AccountService(){
    public void createAccount(){
        Account account = new Account();
        save(account);
    }
};

But Java 8 lambda uses invokedynamic to call lambdas thus if you have 10 lambdas it will not result in any anonymous classes thus reducing the final jar size.

AccountService accountServiceLambda = () -> {
    Account account = new Account();
    save(account);
}

Append and Prepend Using Regular Expressions

Append Operation

Find What    : ^[A-Z].*
Replace With : $&~
Search Mode  : Regular Expressions

Input

Apple
Mango
Orange

Output

Apple~
Mango~
Orange~

Prepend Operation

Find What    : ^[A-Z].*
Replace With : ~$&
Search Mode  : Regular Expressions

Input

Apple
Mango
Orange

Output

~Apple
~Mango
~Orange

Replace Empty Lines

Edit -> Line Operations -> Remove Empty Lines

Prepending based on Certain Condition(Lines Starting with Numbers)

Find What    : ^[1-9;].*
Replace With : $&?
Search Mode  : Regular Expressions

Input

1.How are you
Good
2.What is your Name
Mugil

Output

1.How are you?
Good
2.What is your Name?
Mugil
ஓம் பூர் புவஸ்ஸூவ
தத் சவிதுர்வரேண்யம்
பர்கோ தேவஸ்ய தீமஹி
தியோ யோ ந: ப்ரசோதயாத்|

காயத்திரி’ என்னும் ஒலியின் அளவைக் கொண்டு இந்த மந்திரம் இயற்றப்பட்டதால் “காயத்திரி மந்திரம்”.நமது புத்தியை இயங்கச் செய்யும் பரமாத்மாவை நாம் வணங்குவோம் என்பது சுருக்கமான பொருள்.சூரியனுடைய ஒளியை தியானிக்கின்றோம் என்பதால் கண்களை மூடிய நிலையில் சூரிய ஒளியில் நின்று இதைச் சொல்ல வேண்டும் என்பது யதார்த்தமான விஷயம்

Om Bhuur-Bhuvah Svah
Tat-Savitur-Varennyam |
Bhargo Devasya Dhiimahi
Dhiyo Yo Nah Pracodayaat ||

Full long version

Om bhUH, Om bhuvaH, Om svaH, Om mahaH, Om janaH, Om tapaH, Om satyam
Om tat savitur varenyaM, bhargo, devasya dhImahi, dhIyo yo naH, prachodayAt
Om Apo jyotiH rasoamRitaM brahma, bhur bhuvas svar Om.

A Japanese soap factory had a problem: they sometimes shipped empty boxes, without the soap inside. This was due to the way the production line was set up, and people with experience in designing production lines will tell you how difficult it is to have everything happen with timings so precise that every single unit coming out of it is perfect 100% of the time. Customers who come all the way to the supermarket would end up buying someone else’s product.

Understanding how important that was, the CEO of the soap factory got the top people in the company together and they decided to start a new project, in which they would hire an external engineering company to solve their empty boxes problem, as their engineering department was already too stretched to take on any extra effort.

The project followed the usual process: budget and project sponsor allocated, RFP, third-parties selected, and six months (and $8 million) later they had a fantastic solution — on time, on budget, high quality and everyone in the project had a great time. They solved the problem by using some high-tech precision scales that would sound a bell and flash lights whenever a soap box weighing less than it should. The line would stop, and someone had to walk over and yank the defective box out of it, pressing another button when done.

A while later, the CEO decides to have a look at the ROI of the project: amazing results! No empty boxes ever shipped out of the factory after the scales were put in place. Very few customer complaints, and they were gaining market share. “That’s some money well spent!” – he says, before looking closely at the other statistics in the report. It turns out, the number of defects picked up by the new high precision scales was “zero” after three weeks of production use. It should’ve been picking up at least a dozen a day, so maybe there was something wrong with the report. He filed a bug against it, and after some investigation, the engineers come back saying the report was actually correct. The scales really weren’t picking up any defects, because all boxes that got to that point in the conveyor belt were good.

Puzzled, the CEO travels down to the factory, and walks up to the part of the line where the high precision scales were installed. A few feet before it, there was a $ 20 desk fan, blowing the empty boxes out of the belt and into a bin.

“Oh, that — one of the guys put it there ’cause he was tired of walking over every time the bell rang”, says one of the workers.
Moral of the Story: Everyone has a “solution” sometimes requiring an expenditure of “8 million bucks”. It requires an engineer with a high spirit of innovation and ingenuity to come up with a “$ 20 – simple cost-effective solution”!