The heart of any Hibernate application is in its configuration. There are two pieces of configuration required in any Hibernate application: one creates the database connections, and the other creates the object-to-table mapping

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To create a connection to the database, Hibernate must know the details of our database, tables, classes, and other mechanics. This information is ideally provided as an XML file (usually named hibernate.cfg.xml) or as a simple text file with name/value pairs (usually named hibernate.properties).
In XML style. We name this file hibernate.cfg.xml so the framework can load this file automatically.

hibernate.cfg.xml

<hibernate-configuration>  
    <session-factory>
        <property name="connection.driver_class">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</property>
        <property name="connection.url">jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/hibernate</property>
        <property name="connection.username">root</property>
        <property name="connection.password">pass</property>
         
        <!-- JDBC connection pool (use the built-in) -->
        <property name="connection.pool_size">1</property>
 
        <!-- SQL dialect -->
        <property name="dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</property>
 
        <!-- Disable the second-level cache  -->
        <property name="cache.provider_class">org.hibernate.cache.internal.NoCacheProvider</property>
 
        <!-- Echo all executed SQL to stdout -->
        <property name="show_sql">true</property>
 
        <!-- Drop and re-create the database schema on startup -->
        <property name="hbm2ddl.auto">update</property>
         
        <!-- Name of the Annotated Entity class -->
        <mapping class="com.mugil.dto.UserDetails"/>
    </session-factory>
</hibernate-configuration>

hibernate.properties

hibernate.connection.driver_class = com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
hibernate.connection.url = jdbc:mysql://localhost:3307/JH
hibernate.dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect

We must let Hibernate know our mapping definition files by including an element mapping property in the previous config file, as shown here:
hibernate.cfg.xml

<hibernate-configuration>
 <session-factory>
 ...
 <mapping resource="table1.hbm.xml" />
 <mapping resource="table2.hbm.xml" />
 <mapping resource="table3.hbm.xml" />
 </session-factory>
</hibernate-configuration>

Once we have the connection configuration ready, the next step is to prepare the table1.hbm.xml file consisting of object-table mapping definitions
XML Mapping

<hibernate-mapping>
 <class name="com.java.latte.table1" table="TABLE1">
 <id name="id" column="ID">
 <generator class="native"/>
 </id>
 <property name="title" column="TITLE"/>
 <property name="director" column="DIRECTOR"/>
 <property name="synopsis" column="SYNOPSIS"/>
 </class>
</hibernate-mapping>
  1. The Hibernate framework reads the hibernate.cfg.xml file to create a SessionFactory, which is thread-safe global factory class for creating Sessions. We should ideally create a single SessionFactory and share it across the application.SessionFactory is defined for one, and only one, database.
  2. SessionFactory is to create Session objects.It is the Session’s job to take care of all database operations such as saving, loading, and retrieving records from relevant tables.Session objects are not thread-safe and therefore should not be shared across different classes.
  3. The Session wraps the underlying JDBC connection or J2EE data source, and it serves as a first-level cache for persistent objects bound to it.
  4. Hibernate specifies how each object state is retrieved and stored in the database via an XML configuration file. Hibernate mappings are loaded at startup and are cached in the SessionFactory. Each mapping specifies a variety of parameters related to the persistence lifecycle of instances of the mapped class

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More on hibernate Object States here
More on hibernate Object types here

  1. A filter as the name suggests is a Java class executed by the servlet container for each incoming http request and for each http response. This way, is possible to manage HTTP incoming requests before them reach the resource, such as a JSP page, a servlet or a simple static page; in the same way is possible to manage HTTP outbound response after resource execution.
  2. The filter runs in the web container so its definition will also be contained in the web.xml file
  3. filer include three main methods:
    • init: executed to initialize filter using init-param element in filter definition
    • doFilter: executed for all HTTP incoming request that satisfy “url-pattern”
    • release resources used by the filter

web.xml

<filter>
    <filter-name>CORSFilter</filter-name>
    <filter-class>com.listfeeds.components.CORSFilter</filter-class>
    <init-param>
        <param-name>fake-param</param-name>
        <param-value>fake-param-value</param-value>
    </init-param>
</filter>
<filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>CORSFilter</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
</filter-mapping>

TestFilter.java

package com.listfeeds.filters;

import java.io.IOException;
import javax.servlet.Filter;
import javax.servlet.FilterChain;
import javax.servlet.FilterConfig;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.ServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.ServletResponse;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

public class TestFilter implements Filter {

    public void doFilter(ServletRequest req, ServletResponse res, FilterChain chain) throws IOException, ServletException {

        HttpServletResponse response = (HttpServletResponse) res;
        response.setHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*");
        response.setHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "POST, GET, OPTIONS, DELETE");
        response.setHeader("Access-Control-Max-Age", "3600");
        response.setHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Headers", "x-requested-with");
        chain.doFilter(req, res);
    }

    public void init(FilterConfig filterConfig) {}

    public void destroy() {}

}

Filters can perform many different types of functions.

  1. Authentication-Blocking requests based on user identity.
  2. Logging and auditing-Tracking users of a web application.
  3. Image conversion-Scaling maps
  4. Data compression-Making downloads smaller
  5. Localization-Targeting the request and response to a particular locale

Request Filters can:

  1. perform security checks
  2. reformat request headers or bodies
  3. audit or log requests

Response Filters can:

  1. Compress the response stream
  2. Append or alter the response stream
  3. Create a different response altogether
  1. Spring Interceptors are similar to Servlet Filters but they acts in Spring Context so are many powerful to manage HTTP Request and Response but they can implement more sophisticated behavior because can access to all Spring context.
  2. Spring interceptor execute in Spring context so they have be defined in rest-servlet.xml file:
  3. The interceptor include three main methods:
    • preHandle: executed before the execution of the target resource
    • afterCompletion: executed after the execution of the target resource (after rendering the view)
    • posttHandle: Intercept the execution of a handler

rest-servlet.xml

<mvc:interceptors>
    <bean class="com.listfeeds.interceptors.LogContextInterceptor" />
    <bean class="com.listfeeds.interceptors.TimedInterceptor" />
</mvc:interceptors>

LogContextInterceptor.java

public class LogContextInterceptor extends HandlerInterceptorAdapter 
{
 private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(LogContextInterceptor.class);

 @Override
 public void afterCompletion(
  HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, Exception ex)
 throws Exception 
 {
  HandlerMethod methodHandler = (HandlerMethod) handler;
  log.debug("END EXECUTION method {} request: {}", methodHandler.getMethod().getName(), request.getRequestURI());
  }
 

 @Override
 public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest request,
  HttpServletResponse response, Object handler) throws Exception 
  {

  } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) 
  {
   log.warn("Prehandle", e);
   return true;
  } finally 
  {
   HandlerMethod methodHandler = (HandlerMethod) handler;
   log.debug("START EXECUTION method {} request: {}", methodHandler.getMethod().getName(), request.getRequestURI());
  }
  return true;
}

Q1.What is the Difference between Filters and Interceptors?
Filter: – A filter as the name suggests is a Java class executed by the servlet container for each incoming HTTP request and for each http response. This way, is possible to manage HTTP incoming requests before they reach the resource, such as a JSP page, a servlet or a simple static page; in the same way, it’s possible to manage HTTP outbound response after resource execution.

  1. A filter dynamically intercepts requests and responses to transform or use the information contained in the requests or responses.
  2. Filters typically do not themselves create a response, but instead provide universal functions that can be “attached” to any type of servlet or JSP page.
  3. They provide the ability to encapsulate recurring tasks in reusable units. Organized developers are constantly on the lookout for ways to modularize their code.
  4. Modular code is more manageable and documentable, is easier to debug, and if done well, can be reused in another setting.

Interceptor: – Spring Interceptors are similar to Servlet Filters but they act in Spring Context so are many powerful to manage HTTP Request and Response but they can implement more sophisticated behavior because can access to all Spring context. Interceptors are used in conjunction with Java EE managed classes to allow developers to invoke interceptor methods in conjunction with method invocations or lifecycle events on an associated target class. Common uses of interceptors are logging, auditing, or profiling.

  1. Interceptor can be defined within a target class as an interceptor method, or in an associated class called an interceptor class.
  2. Interceptor classes contain methods that are invoked in conjunction with the methods or lifecycle events of the target class.
  3. Interceptor classes and methods are defined using metadata annotations, or in the deployment descriptor of the application containing the interceptors and target classes.
  4. Interceptor classes may be targets of dependency injection. Dependency injection occurs when the interceptor class instance is created, using the naming context of the associated target class, and before any @PostConstruct callbacks are invoked.

Refer Here

Q2.Spring interceptor vs servlet filter?

  1. Using Interceptor we can inject other beans in the interceptor
  2. Can use more advanced mapping patterns (ant-style)
  3. You have the target handler object (controller) available, as well as the result ModelAndView
  4. It is a bean, so you can use AOP with it (althoug that would be rare)

Q3.How to avoid multiple submission of Form to Server?

  1. Use JavaScript to disable the button a few ms after click. This will avoid multiple submits being caused by impatient users clicking multiple times on the button.
  2. Send a redirect after submit, this is known as Post-Redirect-Get (PRG) pattern. This will avoid multiple submits being caused by users pressing F5 on the result page and ignoring the browser warning that the data will be resend, or navigating back and forth by browser back/forward buttons and ignoring the same warning.
  3. Generate an unique token when the page is requested and put in both the session scope and as hidden field of the form. During processing, check if the token is there and then remove it immediately from the session and continue processing. If the token is not there, then block processing. This will avoid the aforementioned kinds of problems.

Q4.What is POST-REDIRECT-GET Pattern?
The client gets a page with a form.The form POSTs to the server.The server performs the action, and then redirects to another page.The client follows the redirect.
For example, say we have this structure of the website as below

  1. /posts (shows a list of posts and a link to “add post”) and / (view a particular post)
  2. /create (if requested with the GET method, returns a form posting to itself; if it’s a POST request, creates the post and redirects to the / endpoint)

For retrieving posts /posts/ might be implemented like this:

  1. Find the post with that ID in the database.
  2. Render a template with the content of that post.

For creating posts /posts/create might be implemented like this:

  1. If the request is a GET request for the Insert posts page Show an empty form with the target set to itself and the method set to POST.
  2. If the request is a POST request
    • Validate the fields.
    • If there are invalid fields, show the form again with errors indicated.
  3. Otherwise, if all fields are valid
    • Add the post to the database.
    • Redirect to /posts/ (where is returned from the call to the database)

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A Bean definition contains the following piece of information called configuration metadata, which helps the container know the following things.

• The way a bean should be created.
• Life cycle details of a bean.
• Associated Bean dependencies.

The above metadata for the bean configuration is provided as a set of properties or attributes in an XML file (configuration file) which together prepare a bean definition. The following are the set of properties.

Properties Usage
class In a bean definition, it is a mandatory attribute. It is used to specify the bean class which can be used by the container to create the bean.
name In a bean definition, this attribute is used to specify the bean identifier uniquely. In XML based configuration metadata for a bean, we use the id and/or name attributes in order to specify the bean identifier(s).
scope This attribute is used to specify the scope of the objects which are created from a particular bean definition.
constructor-arg In a bean definition, this attribute is used to inject the dependencies.
properties In a bean definition, this attribute is used to inject the dependencies.
autowiring mode In a bean definition, this attribute is used to inject the dependencies.
lazy-initialization mode In a bean definition, a lazy-initialized bean informs the IoC container to create a bean instance only when it is first requested, instead of startup.
initialization method In a bean definition, a callback to be called after all required properties on the bean have been set up by the container.
destruction method In a bean definition, a callback to be used when the container that contains the bean is destroyed.

In the following example, we are going to look into an XML based configuration file which has different bean definitions. The definitions include lazy initialization (lazy-init), initialization method (init-method), and destruction method (destroy-method) as shown below. This configuration metadata file can be loaded either through BeanFactory or ApplicationContext

<?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "UTF-8"?>

<beans xmlns = "http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
   xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
   xsi:schemaLocation = "http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd">

   <!-- A simple bean definition -->
   <bean id = "..." class = "...">
      <!— Here will be collaborators and configuration for this bean -->
   </bean>

   <!-- A bean definition which has lazy init set on -->
   <bean id = "..." class = "..." lazy-init = "true">
      <!-- Here will be collaborators and configuration for this bean -->
   </bean>

   <!-- A bean definition which has initialization method -->
   <bean id = "..." class = "..." init-method = "...">
      <!-- Here will be collaborators and configuration for this bean -->
   </bean>

   <!-- A bean definition which has destruction method -->
   <bean id = "..." class = "..." destroy-method = "...">
      <!-- collaborators and configuration for this bean go here -->
   </bean>

   <!-- more bean definitions can be written below -->
   
</beans>

Q1.What is the Difference between applicationContext and BeanFactory?
ApplicationContext is more feature rich container implementation and should be favored over BeanFactory.Both BeanFactory and ApplicationContext provides a way to get a bean from Spring IOC container by calling getBean(“bean name”)

  1. Bean factory instantiate bean when you call getBean() method while ApplicationContext instantiates Singleton bean when the container is started, It doesn’t wait for getBean to be called.
  2. BeanFactory provides basic IOC and DI features while ApplicationContext provides advanced features
  3. ApplicationContext is ability to publish event to beans that are registered as listener.
  4. implementation of BeanFactory interface is XMLBeanFactory while one of the popular implementation of ApplicationContext interface is ClassPathXmlApplicationContext.In web application we use we use WebApplicationContext which extends ApplicationContext interface and adds getServletContext method
  5. ApplicationContext provides Bean instantiation/wiring,Automatic BeanPostProcessor registration, Automatic BeanFactoryPostProcessor registration,Convenient MessageSource access and ApplicationEvent publication whereas BeanFactory provides only Bean instantiation/wiring

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Q2.What is the Difference between Component and Bean?

  1. @Component auto detects and configures the beans using classpath scanning whereas @Bean explicitly declares a single bean, rather than letting Spring do it automatically.
  2. @Component does not decouple the declaration of the bean from the class definition where as @Bean decouples the declaration of the bean from the class definition.
  3. @Component is a class level annotation where as @Bean is a method level annotation and name of the method serves as the bean name.
  4. @Component need not to be used with the @Configuration annotation where as @Bean annotation has to be used within the class which is annotated with @Configuration.
  5. We cannot create a bean of a class using @Component, if the class is outside spring container whereas we can create a bean of a class using @Bean even if the class is present outside the spring container.
  6. @Component has different specializations like @Controller, @Repository and @Service whereas @Bean has no specializations.

@Component (and @Service and @Repository) are used to auto-detect and auto-configure beans using classpath scanning. There’s an implicit one-to-one mapping between the annotated class and the bean (i.e. one bean per class). Control of wiring is quite limited with this approach since it’s purely declarative.

@Bean is used to explicitly declare a single bean, rather than letting Spring do it automatically as above. It decouples the declaration of the bean from the class definition and lets you create and configure beans exactly how you choose.

Let’s imagine that you want to wire components from 3rd-party libraries (you don’t have the source code so you can’t annotate its classes with @Component), where an automatic configuration is not possible.The @Bean annotation returns an object that spring should register as a bean in the application context. The body of the method bears the logic responsible for creating the instance.
@Bean is applicable to methods, whereas @Component is applicable to types

Q3.What is the difference between @Configuration and @Component in Spring?
@Configuration Indicates that a class declares one or more @Bean methods and may be processed by the Spring container to generate bean definitions and service requests for those beans at runtime

@Component Indicates that an annotated class is a “component”. Such classes are considered as candidates for auto-detection when using annotation-based configuration and classpath scanning.

@Configuration is meta-annotated with @Component, therefore @Configuration classes are candidates for component scanning

Q2.How Exactly does the Spring Bean PostProcessor Works

Q3.What is CGLIB in Spring?

Spring Bean life Cycle is hooked to the below 4 interfaces Methods

  1. InitializingBean and DisposableBean callback interfaces
  2. *Aware interfaces for specific behavior
  3. Custom init() and destroy() methods in bean configuration file
  4. @PostConstruct and @PreDestroy annotations

InitializingBean and DisposableBean callback interfaces
InitializingBean and DisposableBean are two marker interfaces, a useful way for Spring to perform certain actions upon bean initialization and destruction.

  1. For bean implemented InitializingBean, it will run afterPropertiesSet() after all bean properties have been set.
  2. For bean implemented DisposableBean, it will run destroy() after Spring container is released the bean.

Refer Here

Custom init() and destroy() methods in bean configuration file
Using init-method and destroy-method as attribute in bean configuration file for bean to perform certain actions upon initialization and destruction.

@PostConstruct and @PreDestroy annotations
We can manage lifecycle of a bean by using method-level annotations @PostConstruct and @PreDestroy.

The @PostConstruct annotation is used on a method that needs to be executed after dependency injection is done to perform any initialization.

The @PreDestroy annotation is used on methods as a callback notification to signal that the instance is in the process of being removed by the container.

Q1.How to inject bean created using new Operator or Injecting Spring beans into non-managed objects

  1. Using @Configurable refer here
  2. using AutowireCapableBeanFactory

Let take the below code

public class MyBean 
{
    @Autowired 
    private AnotherBean anotherBean;
}

MyBean obj = new MyBean();

I have a class doStuff in which the obj of MyBean created using new operator needs to be injected. To do this use AutowireCapableBeanFactory and call autowireBean method with beanFactory reference.

private @Autowired AutowireCapableBeanFactory beanFactory;

public void doStuff() {
   MyBean obj = new MyBean();
   beanFactory.autowireBean(obj);
   //obj will now have its dependencies autowired.
}

Q2.What is the Difference between @Inject and @Autowired in Spring Framework?
@Inject specified in javax.inject.Inject annotations is part of the Java CDI (Contexts and Dependency Injection) standard introduced in Java EE 6 (JSR-299). Spring has chosen to support using @Inject synonymously with their own @Autowired annotation.@Autowired is Spring’s own (legacy) annotation. @Inject is part of a new Java technology called CDI that defines a standard for dependency injection similar to Spring. In a Spring application, the two annotations work the same way as Spring has decided to support some JSR-299 annotations in addition to their own.

Q3.Use of the Following in Spring Framework?
@RequestMapping – All incoming requests are handled by the Dispatcher Servlet and it routes them through the Spring framework. When the Dispatcher Servlet receives a web request, it determines which controllers should handle the incoming request. Dispatcher Servlet initially scans all the classes that are annotated with the @Controller annotation. The dispatching process depends on the various @RequestMapping annotations declared in a controller class and its handler methods.The @RequestMapping annotation is used to map the web request onto a handler class (i.e. Controller) or a handler method and it can be used at the Method Level or the Class Level.
Example – for the URL http://localhost:8080/ProjectName/countryController/countries

@Controller
@RequestMapping(value = "/countryController")
public class CountryController {
 
 @RequestMapping(value = "/countries", method = RequestMethod.GET, headers = "Accept=application/json")
 public List getCountries() {
    // Some Business Logic
 } 
Annotations Equivalent
@GetMapping @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.GET)
@PostMapping @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.POST)
@PutMapping @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.PUT)
@DeleteMapping @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.DELETE)
@PatchMapping @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.PATCH)

@RequestParam – By using RequestParam we can get parameters to the method

@RequestMapping(value = "/display", method = RequestMethod.GET)
public String showEmployeeForm(@RequestParam("empId") String empId) {
        // Some Business Logic
}

@Pathvariable – @PathVariable is to obtain some placeholder from the URI
If empId and empName as parameters to the method showEmployeeForm() by using the @PathVariable annotation. For e.g.: /employee/display/101/Mux
empId = 101
empName = Mux

@Controller
@RequestMapping(value = "/employee")
public class EmployeeController {
    @RequestMapping(value = "/display/{empId}/{empName}")
    public ModelAndView showEmployeeForm(@PathVariable String empId, @PathVariable String empName) {
                // Some Business Logic
    } 
}

Q4.What is the Difference between @RequestParam vs @PathVariable?
@RequestParam annotation has following attributes

http://localhost:8080/springmvc/hello/101?param1=10¶m2=20
public String getDetails(
    @RequestParam(value="param1", required=true) String param1,
        @RequestParam(value="param2", required=false) String param2){
...
}
defaultValue This is the default value as a fallback mechanism if request is not having the value or it is empty. i.e param1
name Name of the parameter to bind i.e param1
required Whether the parameter is mandatory or not. If it is true, failing to send that parameter will fail. i.e false
value This is an alias for the name attribute i.e param1

@PathVariable is to obtain some placeholder from the URI (Spring call it an URI Template) and @RequestParam is to obtain an parameter from the URI as well.@PathVariable annotation has only one attribute value for binding the request URI template. It is allowed to use the multiple @PathVariable annotation in the single method. But, ensure that no more than one method has the same pattern.Annotation which indicates that a method parameter should be bound to a name-value pair within a path segment. Supported for RequestMapping annotated handler methods.

localhost:8080/person/Tom;age=25;height=175 and Controller:
@GetMapping("/person/{name}")
@ResponseBody
public String person(
    @PathVariable("name") String name, 
    @MatrixVariable("age") int age,
    @MatrixVariable("height") int height) {

    // ...
}

Q5.What is use of @RequestBody and @ResponseBody?

  1. @RequestBody and @ResponseBody used in controller to implement smart object serialization and deserialization. They help you avoid boilerplate code by extracting the logic of message conversion and making it an aspect. Other than that they help you support multiple formats for a single REST resource without duplication of code.
  2. If you annotate a method with @ResponseBody, spring will try to convert its return value and write it to the http response automatically.
  3. If you annotate a methods parameter with @RequestBody, spring will try to convert the content of the incoming request body to your parameter object on the fly.

Q6.What is @Transactional used for?
When Spring loads your bean definitions, and has been configured to look for @Transactional annotations, it will create these proxy objects around your actual bean. These proxy objects are instances of classes that are auto-generated at runtime. The default behaviour of these proxy objects when a method is invoked is just to invoke the same method on the “target” bean (i.e. your bean).
Refere here

@Configuration – @Configuration as a replacement to the XML based configuration for configuring spring beans.So instead of an xml file we write a class and annotate that with @Configuration and define the beans in it using @Bean annotation on the methods.It is just another way of configuration Indicates that a class declares one or more @Bean methods and may be processed by the Spring container to generate bean definitions and service requests for those beans at runtime.

Use @Configuration annotation on top of any class to declare that this class provides one or more @Bean methods and may be processed by the Spring container to generate bean definitions and service requests for those beans at runtime.

AppConfig.java

@Configuration
public class AppConfig {
 
    @Bean(name="demoService")
    public DemoClass service()
    {
        
    }
}

pom.xml
The following dependency should be added to pom.xml before using @configuration annotation to get the bean from the context

<dependency>
		<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
		<version>5.0.6.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>
public class VerifySpringCoreFeature
{
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        ApplicationContext context = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(ApplicationConfiguration.class); 
        DemoManager  obj = (DemoManager) context.getBean("demoService"); 
        System.out.println( obj.getServiceName() );
    }
}

What if I want to ensure the beans are already loaded even before requested and fail-fast

import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;
public class MySpringApp {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		AnnotationConfigApplicationContext ctx = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext();
		ctx.register(MyConfiguration.class);
		ctx.refresh();
		MyBean mb1 = ctx.getBean(MyBean.class);
		MyBean mb2 = ctx.getBean(MyBean.class);
		ctx.close();
	}
}

In the above example Spring loads beans into it’s context before we have even requested it. This is to make sure all the beans are properly configured and application fail-fast if something goes wrong.

Now what will happen if we uncomment the @Configuration annotation in the above class. In this case, if we make a call to myBean() method then it will be a plain java method call and we will get a new instance of MyBean and it won’t remain singleton.

@Configurble – How to inject dependencies into objects that are not created by Spring

public class CarSalon {
    //...
    public void testDrive() {
        Car car = new Car();
        car.startCar();
    }
}
 
@Component
public class Car {
    @Autowired
    private Engine engine;
    @Autowired
    private Transmission transmission;
 
    public void startCar() {
        transmission.setGear(1);
        engine.engineOn();
        System.out.println("Car started");
    }
}
 
@Component
public class Engine {
//...
}
 
@Component
public class Transmission {
//...
}

In the above example

  1. We try to create a Object for Car class using new operator
  2. How ever objects created using new operator are not container managed rather Java Runtime Managed
  3. Trying to access the startCar method using car object will throw NullPointerException
  4. However using @Configurable annotation will tell Spring to inject dependencies into the object before the constructor is run
  5. You need to have these JAR files in pom.xml inorder to make it work.aspectj-x.x.x.jar, aspectjrt.jar, aspectjveawer-x.x.x.jar
@Configurable(preConstruction = true)
@Component
public class Car {
 
    @Autowired
    private Engine engine;
    @Autowired
    private Transmission transmission;
 
    public void startCar() {
        transmission.setGear(1);
        engine.engineOn();
 
        System.out.println("Car started");
    }
}

Q1.What is use of @SpringBootApplication

 @SpringBootApplication =  @Configuration + @EnableAutoConfiguration + @ComponentScan

@Configuration – Spring Configuration annotation indicates that the class has @Bean definition methods. So Spring container can process the class and generate Spring Beans to be used in the application.Refer here

@EnableAutoConfiguration – @EnableAutoConfiguration automatically configures the Spring application based on its included jar files, it sets up defaults or helper based on dependencies in pom.xml. Auto-configuration is usually applied based on the classpath and the defined beans. Therefore, we donot need to define any of the DataSource, EntityManagerFactory, TransactionManager etc and magically based on the classpath, Spring Boot automatically creates proper beans and registers them for us. For example when there is a tomcat-embedded.jar on your classpath you likely need a TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory (unless you have defined your own EmbeddedServletContainerFactory bean).

@EnableAutoConfiguration has a exclude attribute to disable an auto-configuration explicitly otherwise we can simply exclude it from the pom.xml, for example if we do not want Spring to configure the tomcat then exclude spring-bootstarter-tomcat from spring-boot-starter-web.
@ComponentScan – @ComponentScan provides scope for spring component scan, it simply goes though the provided base package and picks up dependencies required by @Bean or @Autowired etc, In a typical Spring application, @ComponentScan is used in a configuration classes, the ones annotated with @Configuration. Configuration classes contains methods annotated with @Bean. These @Bean annotated methods generate beans managed by Spring container. Those beans will be auto-detected by @ComponentScan annotation. There are some annotations which make beans auto-detectable like @Repository , @Service, @Controller, @Configuration, @Component. In below code Spring starts scanning from the package including BeanA class

@Configuration
@ComponentScan(basePackageClasses = BeanA.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration(exclude = {DataSourceAutoConfiguration.class})
public class Config {

  @Bean
  public BeanA beanA(){
    return new BeanA();
  }

  @Bean
  public BeanB beanB{
    return new BeanB();
  }

}

Q2.What @Configurable annotation Does?
@Configurable – @Configurable is an annotation that injects dependencies into objects, that are not managed by Spring using aspectj libraries. You still use old way of instantiation with plain new operator to create objects but the spring will take care of injecting the dependencies into that object automatically for you.
Refer here

Q3.What is Starter Project?What are the Starter Project offered?
Starter POMs are a set of convenient dependency descriptors that you can include in your application
spring-boot-starter-web-services – SOAP Web Services
spring-boot-starter-web – Web & RESTful applications
spring-boot-starter-test – Unit testing and Integration Testing
spring-boot-starter-jdbc – Traditional JDBC
spring-boot-starter-hateoas – Add HATEOAS features to your services
spring-boot-starter-security – Authentication and Authorization using Spring Security
spring-boot-starter-data-jpa – Spring Data JPA with Hibernate
spring-boot-starter-data-rest – Expose Simple REST Services using Spring Data REST

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Why Spring Boot created?
There was lot of difficulty to setup Hibernate Datasource, Entity Manager, Session Factory, and Transaction Management. It takes a lot of time for a developer to set up a basic project using Spring with minimum functionality.

What Spring Boot does?
Spring Boot does all of those using AutoConfiguration and will take care of all the internal dependencies that your application needs — all you need to do is run your application. It follows “Opinionated Defaults Configuration” Approach to reduce Developer effort.Spring Boot looks at a) Frameworks available on the CLASSPATH b) Existing configuration for the application. Based on these, Spring Boot provides basic configuration needed to configure the application with these frameworks. This is called Auto Configuration.

How to use Spring Boot ?