To customize request parameter data binding, we can use @InitBinder annotated methods within our controller.

  1. The @InitBinder annotated methods will get called on each HTTP request if we don’t specify the ‘value’ element of this annotation.
  2. Each time this method is called a new instance of WebDataBinder is passed to it.
  3. To be more specific about which objects our InitBinder method applies to, we can supply ‘value’ element of the annotation @InitBinder. The ‘value’ element is a single or multiple names of command/form attributes and/or request parameters that this init-binder method is supposed to apply to.
    @InitBinder("User")
    public void customizeBinding (WebDataBinder binder) 
    {
      .
      .
      .
    }

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/register")
public class UserRegistrationController 
{
    @InitBinder("user")
    public void customizeBinding (WebDataBinder binder) 
    {
        SimpleDateFormat dateFormatter = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd");
        dateFormatter.setLenient(false);
        binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, "dateOfBirth", new CustomDateEditor(dateFormatter, true));
    }
    
    .
    . 
}

simpleDateFormat.setLenient(false); — Will check for out of range Date. For Example, If lenient is set to true, Aug 32 will be converted to Sep 1 .

Posted in MVC.

In the Spring Container the underlying persistence unit(oracle, mysql) used can be conveyed in three ways

  1. Dialect
  2. Vendor
  3. Provider

Using Dialect in Spring(or)application.xml

<bean id="jpaDialect" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaDialect"/>

<bean id="emf" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean">
    <property name="jpaVendorAdapter">
        <bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter" />
    </property>
....
</bean>

<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager">
    <property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="emf"/>
    <property name="jpaDialect" ref="jpaDialect"/>
</bean>

We are telling ‘Spring’ to configure a transactionManager whose properties are entityManagerFactory and jpaDialect. Since these properties have to be specific to hibernate these are set according. The entityManagerFactory and jpaDialect are now set specifically to hibernate (or Vendor).

Dialect and Vendor Adapter works together

Notes:

  1. transactionManager needs entityManagerFactory and jpaDialect
  2. entityManagerFactory – defines database related properties
  3. jpaDialect – JpaDialect is an interface encapsulates certain functionality that standard JPA 1.0 does not offer, such as access to the underlying JDBC Connection.

Using Vendor in Spring(or)application.xml

<property name="jpaVendorAdapter">
    <bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter" />
</property>

the VendorAdapter is injected in to transactionManager along with entityManager
Since you have provided the class as class=”org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter”/>, this allows Spring to plug in vendor-specific behavior into Spring’s EntityManagerFactory creators and it serves as single configuration point for all vendor-specific properties.It’s a custom implementation of spring’s own JpaVendorAdapter.

The reason it is so is the underlying database differs from application to application based on the needs and the underlying persistence unit which the developer would like to use I.E MySQL, Oracle.

Using Provider persistence-context.xml

org.hibernate.ejb.HibernatePersistence [/xml]

The tells spring to use the hibernate provider and the class org.hibernate.ejb.HibernatePersistence is Hibernate EJB3 persistence provider implementation.

Note:
Application works just by configuring persistence and provider because the vendor adapter is automatically passed by the persistence provided i.e. HibernatePersistence via the getPersistenceProvider in JpaVendorAdapter.

Provider + JpaVendorAdapter(Used getPersistenceProvider to get underlying Persistence technology in our case hibernate) -> Works
Dialect + JpaVendorAdapter -> Works
Provider + Dialect -> Doesn’t Works

Difference between configuring data source in persistence.xml and spring (or) application-context.xml files

persistence-context.xml

<persistence-unit name="LocalDB" transaction-type="RESOURCE_LOCAL">
    <class>domain.User</class>
    <exclude-unlisted-classes>true</exclude-unlisted-classes>
    <properties>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.driver_class" value="org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver"/>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.url" value="jdbc:hsqldb:hsql://localhost"/>
        <property name="hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto" value="create"/>
        <property name="hibernate.c3p0.min_size" value="5"/>
        ....
        <property name="hibernate.dialect" value="org.hibernate.dialect.HSQLDialect"/>
    </properties>
</persistence-unit>

application-context.xml

<bean id="domainEntityManagerFactory" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean">
    <property name="persistenceUnitName" value="JiraManager"/>
    <property name="dataSource" ref="domainDataSource"/>
    <property name="jpaVendorAdapter">
        <bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter">
            <property name="generateDdl" value="false"/>
            <property name="showSql" value="false"/>
            <property name="databasePlatform" value="${hibernate.dialect}"/>
        </bean>
    </property>
</bean>

<bean id="domainDataSource" class="com.mchange.v2.c3p0.ComboPooledDataSource" destroy-method="close">
    <property name="driverClass" value="${db.driver}" />
    <property name="jdbcUrl" value="${datasource.url}" />
    <property name="user" value="${datasource.username}" />
    <property name="password" value="${datasource.password}" />
    <property name="initialPoolSize" value="5"/>
    <property name="minPoolSize" value="5"/>
    .....
</bean>

If you are using persistence.xml you’re creating your own connection pool and do not profit from the existing connection pool in the container. Thus even if you configured your container to, say, a max of 20 simultaneous connections to the database, you can’t guarantee this max as this new connection pool is not restrained by your configuration. Also, you don’t profit from any monitoring tools your container provides you.

If you are using spring (or) application.xml
If you’re also creating your own connection pool, with the same disadvantages as above. However, you can isolate the definition of this spring bean and only use it in test runs.Your best bet is to look up the container’s connection pool via JNDI. Then you are sure to respect the data source configurations from the container.

application-context.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
  xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
  xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
  xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
  xmlns:jdbc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc"
  xsi:schemaLocation="
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop.xsd
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx-3.0.xsd
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc/spring-jdbc-3.0.xsd
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
   http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.0.xsd">  
   
<context:component-scan base-package="mugil.org.*" />      
<tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager"/>
  
<bean id="transactionManager"
  class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager">
     <property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="entityManagerFactory" />
</bean>

<bean id="entityManagerFactory"
class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean"
p:dataSource-ref="dataSource" p:persistenceUnitName="simple-jpa">
 </bean>
  
 <bean id="dataSource" class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource">
        <property name="driverClassName" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"/>
        <property name="url" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/MUSIC_STORE"/>
        <property name="username" value="music_store"/>
        <property name="password" value="music_store"/>  
 </bean>     
</beans>

Dissection of application-context.xml

 <context:component-scan base-package="mugil.org.*" />
  1. This component-scan tag also enables the usage of JPA annotations.
  2. Enables the usage of JPA annotations(@Service, @Component, @Repository, @Controller and etc.,)
  3. annotation-config —> enables the usage of JPA annotations , only in the beans specified in the context.xml whereas (ii) component-scan —> scans through all the packages specified, records all the project beans having JPA annotations, into this context.xml. Therefore it enables JPA annotaion usage in (beans specified in context.xml)+(Project Beans).Inshort, component-scan extends annotation-config.

Note:
When we use component-scan in the app-context.xml, it’s not necessary to use annotation-config again.Even if both the tags are specified, it’s not a problem because, the spring container would take care of running the process only once.

 <tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager"/>
  1. It checks for @Transactional annotation in any of the classes. This tag is like a Transactional Switch that turns on the transactional behaviour.Here Transaction Manager is being injected
<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager">
   <property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="entityManagerFactory" />
</bean>

 <bean id="dataSource" class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource">
        <property name="driverClassName" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"/>
        <property name="url" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/MUSIC_STORE"/>
        <property name="username" value="music_store"/>
        <property name="password" value="music_store"/>  
 </bean>     
  1. Here Transaction Manager is setup.EntityManagerFactory is being injected.
  2. Here EntityManagerFactory is setup .Data Source reference and Persistence UnitName Reference is specified.
  3. DB connection details are specified.
  4. Based on the PersistenceUnit name, the corresponding portion of persistence.xml is accessed (a Project can have multiple persistenceUnitNames)

persistence-context.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<persistence version="2.0" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_2_0.xsd">
  <persistence-unit name="simple-jpa" transaction-type="RESOURCE_LOCAL">
    <provider>org.hibernate.ejb.HibernatePersistence</provider>
    <class>mugil.pojo.MusicDetails</class>
    <exclude-unlisted-classes>true</exclude-unlisted-classes>
    <properties>
      <property name="hibernate.dialect" value="org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect"/> 
      <property name="hibernate.show_sql" value="true"/>
      <property name="hibernate.max_fetch_depth" value="3"/> 
    </properties>
  </persistence-unit>
</persistence>

Dissection of persistence-context.xml

  1. persistence-unit – Defines the Name of the Persistence Unit
  2. provider – ORM tool by which the underlying persistence would be accessed
  3. class – Entity Class Names
  4. properties – Defining the underlying persistence technology and other properties would be configured here

Other Java Codes
DaoInterface.java

public interface IMusicStoreDao 
{
   public List getMusicList();
}

DaoImplementation.java

@Service(value = "MusicCollections")
@Repository(value = "MusicCollections")
@Transactional
public class MusicStoreDaoImpl implements IMusicStoreDao{
 
  @PersistenceContext(unitName = "simple-jpa")
    private EntityManager entityManager;
 
   @Override
     public List getMusicList(){
     List musicDetailsList= entityManager.createQuery("select c from MusicDetails c").getResultList();
     return musicDetailsList;
    }
}

Executer.java

public class Executer {
   public static void main(String[] args){
        ApplicationContext applicationContext=new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("META-INF/app-context.xml");
        IMusicStoreDao musicStoreDao=(IMusicStoreDao) applicationContext.getBean("MusicCollections");
        System.out.println("MusicList: \n"+musicStoreDao.getMusicList());
    }
}

Reference:
Spring and JPA

Posted in JPA.
  1. Spring sits between the application classes and the O/R mapping tool, undertakes transactions, and manages connection objects.It translates the underlying persistence exceptions thrown by Hibernate to meaningful, unchecked exceptions of type DataAccessException. Moreover, Spring provides IoC and AOP, which can be used in the persistence layer
  2. Hibernate uses Template Pattern – To clean the code and provide more manageable code, Spring utilizes a pattern called Template Pattern. By this pattern, a template object wraps all of the boilerplate repetitive code. Then, this object delegates the persistence calls as a part of functionality in the template. In the Hibernate case, HibernateTemplate extracts all of the boilerplate code, such as obtaining a Session, performing transaction, and handing exceptions.
  3. With Spring, the HibernateTemplate object interacts with Hibernate. This object removes the boilerplate code from DAO implementations.Any invocation of one of HibernateTemplate’s methods throws the generic DataAccessException exception instead of HibernateException (a Hibernate-specific exception).Spring lets us demarcate transactions declaratively, instead of implementing duplicated transaction-management code.
  4. The HibernateTemplate class uses a SessionFactory instance internally to obtain Session objects for Hibernate interaction. Interestingly, you can configure the SessionFactory object via the Spring IoC container to be instantiated and injected into DAO objects.
  5. Spring provides its own exception hierarchy, which sits on the exception hierarchies of the O/R mapping tools.The Spring exception hierarchy is defined as a subclass of org.springframework.dao.DataAccessException. Spring catches any exception thrown in the underlying persistence technology and wraps it in a DataAccessException instance.The DataAccessException object is an unchecked exception, because it extends RuntimeException and you do not need to catch it if you do not want to.
  6. Spring provides distinct DAO base classes for the different data-access technologies it supports. When you use Hibernate with Spring, the DAO classes extend the Spring org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.support.HibernateDaoSupport class. This class wraps an instance of org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.HibernateTemplate, which in turn wraps an org.hibernate.SessionFactory instance.
    org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.support.HibernateDaoSupport   
                              |
       org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.HibernateTemplate
                              |
                 org.hibernate.SessionFactory   
      
  7. HibernateException is thrown for any failure when directly interacting with Hibernate. When Spring is used, HibernateException is caught by Spring and translated to DataAccessException for any persistence failure. Both exceptions are unchecked, so you do not need to catch them if you don’t want to do.
  8. DAO Implementation using DAOSupport
    StudentDao.java

    import java.util.Collection;
    
    public interface StudentDao 
    {
      public Student getStudent(long id);
      public Collection getAllStudents();
      public Collection findStudents(String lastName);
      public void saveStudent(Student std);
      public void removeStudent(Student std);
    }
    

    Using DAOSupport Object
    StudentDao.java

    import org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.support.HibernateDaoSupport;
    import java.util.Collection;
    
    public class HibernateStudentDao extends HibernateDaoSupport implements StudentDao 
    {
      public Student getStudent(long id) 
      {
        return (Student) getHibernateTemplate().get(Student.class, new Long(id));
      }
    
      public Collection getAllStudents()
      {
        return getHibernateTemplate().find("from Student std order by std.lastName, std.firstName");
      }
    
    
      public Collection findStudents(String lastName) 
      {
        return getHibernateTemplate().find("from Student std where std.lastName like ?", lastName + "%");
      }
    
      public void saveStudent(Student std) 
      {
        getHibernateTemplate().saveOrUpdate(std);
      }
    
      public void removeStudent(Student std) 
      {
        getHibernateTemplate().delete(std);
      }
    }
    
  9. all of the persistent methods in the DAO class use the getHibernateTemplate() method to access the HibernateTemplate object.
  10. HibernateTemplate is a Spring convenience class that delegates DAO calls to the Hibernate Session API. This class exposes all of Hibernate’s Session methods, as well as a variety of other convenient methods that DAO classes may need. Because HibernateTemplate convenient methods are not exposed by the Session interface, you can use find() and findByCriteria() when you want to execute HQL or create a Criteria object.
  11. Using the HibernateDaoSupport class as the base class for all Hibernate DAO implementations would be more convenient, but you can ignore this class and work directly with a HibernateTemplate instance in DAO classes. To do so, define a property of HibernateTemplate in the DAO class, which is initialized and set up via the Spring IoC container.
  12. DAO Implementation Using HibernateTemplate

    import org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.HibernateTemplate;
    import java.util.Collection;
    
    public class HibernateStudentDao implements StudentDao 
    {
        
      HibernateTemplate hibernateTemplate;
    
      public Student getStudent(long id) 
      {
        return (Student) getHibernateTemplate().get(Student.class, new Long(id));
      }
    
      public Collection getAllStudents()
      {
        return getHibernateTemplate().find("from Student std order by std.lastName, std.firstName");
      }
    
      public Collection findStudents(String lastName) 
      {
        return getHibernateTemplate().find("from Student std where std.lastName like "+ lastName + "%");
      }
    
      public void saveStudent(Student std) 
      {
        getHibernateTemplate().saveOrUpdate(std);
      }
    
      public void removeStudent(Student std) 
      {
        getHibernateTemplate().delete(std);
      }
    
      public HibernateTemplate getHibernateTemplate() 
      {
        return hibernateTemplate;
      }
    
      public void setHibernateTemplate(HibernateTemplate hibernateTemplate) 
      {
        this.hibernateTemplate = hibernateTemplate;
      }
    }
     
  13. The DAO class now has the setHibernateTemplate() method to allow Spring to inject the configured HibernateTemplate instance into the DAO object.Moreover, the DAO class can abandon the HibernateTemplate class and use the SessionFactory instance directly to interact with Hibernate.

    Using SessionFactory Object

    import org.hibernate.HibernateException;
    import org.hibernate.Session;
    import org.hibernate.Query;
    import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
    import org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.SessionFactoryUtils;
    
    import java.util.Collection;
    
    public class HibernateStudentDao implements StudentDao 
    {
      SessionFactory sessionFactory;
    
      public Student getStudent(long id) 
      {
        Session session = SessionFactoryUtils.getSession(this.sessionFactory, true);
        try {
          return (Student) session.get(Student.class, new Long(id));
        } catch (HibernateException ex) {
          throw SessionFactoryUtils.convertHibernateAccessException(ex);
        } finally {
          SessionFactoryUtils.closeSession(session);
        }
      }
    
      public Collection getAllStudents()
      {
        Session session = SessionFactoryUtils.getSession(this.sessionFactory, true);
        try {      
          Query query = session.createQuery("from Student std order by std.lastName, std.firstName");
          Collection allStudents = query.list();
          return allStudents;
        } catch (HibernateException ex) {
          throw SessionFactoryUtils.convertHibernateAccessException(ex);
        } finally {
          SessionFactoryUtils.closeSession(session);
        }
      }
    
      public Collection getGraduatedStudents()
      {
        Session session = SessionFactoryUtils.getSession(this.sessionFactory, true);
        try {
          Query query = session.createQuery("from Student std where std.status=1");
          Collection graduatedStudents = query.list();
          return graduatedStudents;
        } catch (HibernateException ex) {
          throw SessionFactoryUtils.convertHibernateAccessException(ex);
        } finally {
          SessionFactoryUtils.closeSession(session);
        }
      }
    
      public Collection findStudents(String lastName) 
      {
        Session session = SessionFactoryUtils.getSession(this.sessionFactory, true);
        try {
          Query query = session.createQuery("from Student std where std.lastName like ?");
          query.setString(1, lastName + "%");
          Collection students = query.list();
          return students;
        } catch (HibernateException ex) {
          throw SessionFactoryUtils.convertHibernateAccessException(ex);
        } finally {
          SessionFactoryUtils.closeSession(session);
        }
      }
    
      public void saveStudent(Student std) 
      {
        Session session = SessionFactoryUtils.getSession(this.sessionFactory, true);
        try {
          session.save(std);
        } catch (HibernateException ex) {
          throw SessionFactoryUtils.convertHibernateAccessException(ex);
        } finally {
          SessionFactoryUtils.closeSession(session);
        }
      }
    
      public void removeStudent(Student std) 
      {
        Session session = SessionFactoryUtils.getSession(this.sessionFactory, true);
        try {
          session.delete(std);
        } catch (HibernateException ex) {
          throw SessionFactoryUtils.convertHibernateAccessException(ex);
        } finally {
          SessionFactoryUtils.closeSession(session);
        }
      }
    
      public void setSessionFactory(SessionFactory sessionFactory) {
        this.sessionFactory = sessionFactory;
      }
    }
    
  14. In all of the methods above, the SessionFactoryUtils class is used to obtain a Session object. The provided Session object is then used to perform the persistence operation. SessionFactoryUtils is also used to translate HibernateException to DataAccessException in the catch blocks and close the Session objects in the final blocks. Note that this DAO implementation bypasses the advantages of HibernateDaoSupport and HibernateTemplate. You must manage Hibernate’s Session manually (as well as exception translation and transaction management) and implement much boilerplate code.
  15. org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.SessionFactoryUtils is a Spring helper class for obtaining Session, reusing Session within transactions, and translating HibernateException to the generic DataAccessException.
  16. In cases where you need to work directly with Session objects, you can use an implementation of the org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.HibernateCallback interface as the handler to work with Sessions.
  17. An implicit implementation of HibernateCallback is created and its only doInHibernate() method is implemented. The doInHibernate() method takes an object of Session and returns the result of persistence operation, null if none. The HibernateCallback object is then passed to the execute() method of HibernateTemplate to be executed. The doInHibernate() method just provides a handler to work directly with Session objects that are obtained and used behind the scenes.

    Using HibernateCallback

     public void saveStudent(Student std) 
     {
      HibernateCallback callback = new HibernateCallback() {
       public Object doInHibernate(Session session) throws 
    HibernateException, SQLException {
        return session.saveOrUpdate(std);
       }
      };
      getHibernateTemplate().execute(callback);  
     }
     

What is BeanFactory?
The BeanFactory is the actual container which instantiates, configures, and manages a number of beans.Let have a look at how spring works

How it Works

  1. When the application is Deployed the Spring framework reads the xml file and creates the objects.Those are the objects which you see in the Spring Container
  2. Now when you try to refer any of these objects from the outside object using the new method it will throw an exception since or when you try to create a object using new method, the spring container has no idea about the object which you are trying to access
  3. Now to access the object in the container you will use the BeanFactory Objects

BeanFactory is represented by org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanFactory interface.It is the main and the basic way to access the Spring container.Other ways to access the spring container such as ApplicationContext,ListableBeanFactory, ConfigurableBeanFactory etc. are built upon this BeanFactory interface.

BeanFactory interface defines basic functionality for the Spring Container like

  1. It is built upon Factory Design Pattern
  2. provides DI / IOC mechanism for the Spring.
  3. It loads the beans definitions and their property descriptions from some configuration source (for example, from XML configuration file) .
  4. Instantiates the beans when they are requested like beanfactory_obj.getBean(“beanId”).
  5. Wire dependencies and properties for the beans according to their configuration defined in configuration source while instantiating the beans.
  6. Manage the bean life cycle by bean lifecycle interfaces and calling initialization and destruction methods.

Note that BeanFactory does not create the objects of beans immediately when it loads the configuration for beans from configuration source.Only bean definitions and their property descriptions are loaded. Beans themselves are instantiated and their properties are set only when they are requested such as by getBean() method.

Different BeanFactory Implementations:

XmlBeanFactory using Constructor:

Resource res = new FileSystemResource("c:/beansconfig.xml");
BeanFactory bfObj = new XmlBeanFactory(res);
MyBean beanObj= (MyBean) bfObj.getBean("mybean");
  1. The XmlBeanFactory takes the resource object as Parameter
  2. bfObj points to the Spring Container from which you try to fetch the object
  3. mybean is the ID of the Object specified in the XML File
  4. In the above case BeanFactory loads the beans lazily.BeanFactory will read bean definition of a bean with id “mybean” from beansconfig.xml file, instantiates it and return a reference to that.
  5. There are tow implementation of Resource Intefrace. one is org.springframework.core.io.FileSystemResource as seen above and other is org.springframework.core.io.ClassPathResource which loads Loads the resource from classpath(shown below).
ClassPathResource resorce = new ClassPathResource ("beansconfig.xml");
BeanFactory factory = new XmlBeanFactory(resource);

ClassPathXmlApplicationContext:

ClassPathXmlApplicationContext appContext = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext(
        new String[] {"applicationContext.xml", "applicationContext-part2.xml"});

//an ApplicationContext is also a BeanFactory.
BeanFactory factory = (BeanFactory) appContext;

Note BeanFactory is not recomended for use in latest Spring versions. It is there only for backward compatability. ApplicationContext is preferred over this because ApplicationContext provides more advance level features which makes an application enterprise level application.

Autowiring vs new Object Keyword

Autowiring new Object()
decouples object creation and life-cycle from object binding and usage Using new Keyword creates new Object everytime.The object graph grows over a period of time.Consider UserDaoImpl perhaps needs a Hibernate session, which needs a DataSource, which needs a JDBC connection – it quickly becomes a lot of objects that has to be created and initialized over and over again. When you rely on new in your code
Autowiring offers object at different scopes – Singleton, request and prototype All objects are JVM Scope

How Autowiring works
The autowiring happens when the application starts up, during the time of deployment.When it sees @Autowired, Spring will look for a class that matches the property in the applicationContext, and inject it automatically.

Lets see a example where the dependencies are resolved by XML and annotation
ApplicationContext.xml

<beans ...>
    <bean id="userService" class="com.foo.UserServiceImpl"/>
    <bean id="fooController" class="com.foo.FooController"/>
</beans>

When it sees @Autowired, Spring will look for a class that matches the property in the applicationContext, and inject it automatically. If you have more than 1 UserService bean, then you’ll have to qualify which one it should use.

FooController.java

public class FooController 
{
    // You could also annotate the setUserService method instead of this
    @Autowired
    private UserService userService;

    // rest of class goes here
}

Things to Note while Autowiring

  1. Marks a constructor, field, setter method or config method as to be autowired by Spring’s dependency injection facilities.
  2. Only one constructor (at max) of any given bean class may carry this annotation, indicating the constructor to autowire when used as a Spring bean. Such a constructor does not have to be public.
  3. Fields are injected right after construction of a bean, before any config methods are invoked. Such a config field does not have to be public.
  4. •In the case of multiple argument methods, the ‘required’ parameter is applicable for all arguments.

Annotation or XML
For instance, if using Spring, it is entirely intuitive to use XML for the dependency injection portion of your application. This gets the code’s dependencies away from the code which will be using it, by contrast, using some sort of annotation in the code that needs the dependencies makes the code aware of this automatic configuration.

However, instead of using XML for transactional management, marking a method as transactional with an annotation makes perfect sense, since this is information a programmer would probably wish to know. But that an interface is going to be injected as a SubtypeY instead of a SubtypeX should not be included in the class, because if now you wish to inject SubtypeX, you have to change your code, whereas you had an interface contract before anyways, so with XML, you would just need to change the XML mappings and it is fairly quick and painless to do so.

I haven’t used JPA annotations, so I don’t know how good they are, but I would argue that leaving the mapping of beans to the database in XML is also good, as the object shouldn’t care where its information came from.If an annotation provides functionality and acts as a comment in and of itself, and doesn’t tie the code down to some specific process in order to function normally without this annotation, then go for annotations. For example, a transactional method marked as being transactional does not kill its operating logic, and serves as a good code-level comment as well. Otherwise, this information is probably best expressed as XML, because although it will eventually affect how the code operates, it won’t change the main functionality of the code, and hence doesn’t belong in the source files.

Problem
When using getResultList() to retrieve the Rows of the DB table there may be times where you would end up getting the same rows multiple times.

Why this Happens
Let’s have a table tblGroup the one below

ParentGrp GrpName
Finance Accounts
Finance Sales
  1. You have 2 records in database.Both the records has Finance as value in parentGrp column
  2. Now when you run a select query to select parentGrp = ‘Finance’ you will get 2 records
  3. Lets query them WHERE parentGrp = ‘Finance’
  4. SQL Query returns 2 rows
  5. Hibernate loads first one, and puts into session, with parentGrp as a key.Now this will happen if you have specified it as @ID in entity class or you havent specified it while joining two tables in entity class.The object is placed into the result list.
  6. Hibernate loads second one, notices that an object with the same @Id is already in the session, and just places the reference into the result List. Row data are ignored.
  7. Now we have two copies of the same record

Solution:
We can solve this by introducing a primary key column something like tblGroup_pk_id.Now this helps to uniquely identify the records in the table so it won’t get overridden when the next rows retrieved.

Now the GrpId should be entitled with @ID annotation in the entity class.

GrpId ParentGrp GrpName
101 Finance Accounts
102 Finance Sales
createQuery() createSQLQuery() createCriteria()
Creates Query Object Creates Query Object Creates Criteria Object
Uses HQL Syntax Uses DB Specific Syntax Uses Entity Class
The Columns of the rows retrieved would be name of the POJO Model Class The Columns of the rows retrieved would be name of Native DB fields Create sql query using Criteria object for setting the query parameters
CRUD operation could be done CRUD operation could be done Only Read Operation is allowed
Supports Interoperability between different DB’s Does not support Interoperability since the query format should be changed when the DB is changed Supports Interoperability between different DB’s
Does not work without Model Class Bean with columns of Table alone is Enough.No need for Entity class generation Does not work without Model Class
No need for mapping between Entity class object and Table Columns The Bean Objects should be mapped with table Columns No need for mapping

createQuery – session.createQuery()

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**DB_TBL_Col(tblEmployee)**| **POJO(Employee)**
EMP_ID                     | employeeID
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Query query = session.createQuery("from Employee E where E.employeeID = 'A%'");
List<Person> persons = query.list();