The word consonant is also used to refer to a letter of an alphabet that denotes a consonant sound. The 21 consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Z, and usually W and Y

a,e,i,o,u, y is Special Vowel


In the above words y is spelled like i

Noun is person, place, animal, thing e.g. book,park,umbrella, elephant, dcotor, orange

Use of Articles in Front of Vowels
A Banana
An Apple(Apple starts with vowel A)
A Cat
A Boy
An Egg
The Cat(Particular Cat)

Singular & Plural Noun
Singular Noun
A ring
A Dog
A Teacher
An Apple
An Egg

Plural Noun and their Singular
Two Rings – A Ring
Three Dogs – A Dog
Four Teachers – A Teacher
Five Apples – An Apple
Six Eggs – An Egg

To make plural we use s (or) es
A Bus – Two Buses
A Box – Two Boxes
A Watch – Two Watches

How to Decide s or es
If the noun ends with ch,sh,x,ss we should put es
Church – Churches
Brush – Brushes
Fox – Foxes
Dress – Dresses

Special Noun for Noun
Potato – Potatoes
Tomato – Tomatoes
Volcano – Volcanoes

where as
Photo – Photos

Pronoun (or) Subjective Pronoun
I,He,She, It, You,We,They

Jenny Sings – She Sings
Jack Sings – He Sings
Jenny and Jack Sings – They Sings
The Cat Runs – It Runs
The Dog and Cat Runs – They Runs
My Students Study – They Study
John is Handsome – He is Handsome
Pizza is Delicious – It is Delicious

“Be” verbs indicate a state of being.
Am, is, are

Pronoun + Be VerbContractions
I am – I’m
He is – He’s
She is – She’s
It is – It’s
You are – You’re
We are – We’re
They are – They’re

A Contraction is common way to tell Subjective Pronoun and Be Verb

I’m a Student [Don’t miss a in middle]
It’s a Dog [Don’t miss a in middle]

We’re Students [Many Student so no a In between]
They’re Students [Many Student so no a In between]

Pronouns + Be Verb + Not
I’m not a Student
He’s not a Student
You’re not Students [Note : a is missing in front of Student]
They’re not Students [Note : a is missing in front of Student]

BE verbs comes in front of a question
Am I a teacher

BE verbs follows pronoun in answer
I am not a teacher

Question Singular and Plural
What is it?
It is a box

If there is single box it would be it

What are they?
They are boxes

If there are multiple boxes it would be they

What is it?
It is a cat.

What are they?
They are Cats

Singular – is – Only one thing
Plural – are – Group of thing

This and That
We use this to point to one noun that is close

This is flower

We use that to point to one noun that is away

That is flower

This and That in Question
Is this a Flower?
Is that a Flower?

These and Those
These are Flowers(Closer)
Those are Flowers(Away)

These and Those in Questions
Are these Flowers?(Closer) No they aren’t.
Are those Flowers?(Away) No they aren’t.

Close Far
This That
These Those

Possessive Adjective
Used to tell something belongs to me or Someone else

Subjective Pronoun Possessive Adjective
I My
He His
She Her
It Its
You Your
We Our
They Their

Possessive Adjective
Its and It’s are different
Your and You’re are different
Their and They’re are different

Possessive Pronoun
Something belongs to us (or) something owned by us. Possessive pronoun and possessive adjectives are almost same. In possessive pronoun you don’t stretch much on noun.

Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun
This is his Hat This is his
This is her dress This is hers
This is their house This is theirs
This is their books These are theirs


a/an the
anyone thing specific thing
first time second time
article to be used in front of noun One and Only

A banana is Delicious [All banana is delicious]
The banana is Old[Particular banana is old]

I watched a movie [First Time]
I watched the Movie.[Second Time]

The Sun[One and Only]
The Moon[One and Only]

More Examples
A lion is Dangerous Animal[All lions are dangerous]
It’s a Dog[Talking first time]
The Dog is Cute[Talking Second Time]
It’s an ant[Starts with vowel]
The ant is small[Particular ant]
It’s the moon.The moon is round[One and only moon]

a word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause, as in ‘the man on the platform’, ‘she arrived after dinner’, ‘what did you do it for ?’.

Prepositions to tell where something is

The cat is in the Box
The Cat is on the Chair
The Cat under the Chair

Tells the attribute of a noun, such as sweet, red, or technical.
Size, Shape, Color. Adjectives comes before noun

Its a Black Marker
Its a Blue Bird
Its an ugly ant
They are Red Apples

Both are used to show possessions
Have is used with some pronouns and plural nouns

I have
You have
We have
They have

I have a great English teacher.
You have toothpaste on your chin.
We have a meeting at 12.
Nurses have a difficult job.

Has is used with the third person singular

He has
She has
It has

She has a great personality.
He has a new haircut.
The washing machine has a leak in it.
It has a hole near the door.

Sentence Replaced with Subjective pronoun
The girl has long hair She has long hair
The Boys have caps They have caps
My mother and I have a Car We have a car

I have a Friend
He has an Umbrella
The dog has a bone
It has a bone

In negative sentence we use always have not has.The only thing which needed to be taken care is doesn’t or dont

  1. I don’t have
  2. He doesn’t have
  3. She doesn’t have
  4. It doesn’t have
  5. You don’t have
  6. We don’t have
  7. They don’t have

Do/Does + Have
Does should be followed by he,she,it
Do should be followed by you,we,they

Does he have a friend?
Does she have a friend?
Does it have a friend?

Do you have a friend?
Do we have a friend?
Do they have a friend?

Can I/Could I/May I

  • All are used for getting permission
  • May I is more polite than other two

May I help you?
Can I help you again?
Could I Call you Later?
Could I borrow some money?
Can I go?
May I speak to Mr.Kim?
May I go to the bathroom?

Can I and Could I are almost similar
May I is more polite while speaking to someone who is more authoritative or superior than you

May I help you (Mostly heard from shop keepers)

Borrow/Lend Me
Use lend when you are giving money or items to someone.Use borrow when you are taking money or items from someone

You borrow something from somebody. In other words, you take something from someone for a limited time.

You lend something to somebody. In other words, you give something to someone for a limited time.

Can I borrow Me your pencil?
Can I borrow your pencil?

Can you lend me your pencil? (or)
Is it ok if I borrow your book?
Can I borrow your umbrella?
May I borrow some money?
Please lend me a pen?
I Lent my baking tin to Emily ages ago and I still haven’t got it back.

If you ask someone to give something or if you give someone – Lend or Lent
If you ask to get something to someone – borrow