The word consonant is also used to refer to a letter of an alphabet that denotes a consonant sound. The 21 consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Z, and usually W and Y

a,e,i,o,u, y is Special Vowel


In the above words y is spelled like i

Noun is person, place, animal, thing e.g. book,park,umbrella, elephant, dcotor, orange

Use of Articles in Front of Vowels
A Banana
An Apple(Apple starts with vowel A)
A Cat
A Boy
An Egg
The Cat(Particular Cat)

Singular & Plural Noun
Singular Noun
A ring
A Dog
A Teacher
An Apple
An Egg

Plural Noun and their Singular
Two Rings – A Ring
Three Dogs – A Dog
Four Teachers – A Teacher
Five Apples – An Apple
Six Eggs – An Egg

To make plural we use s (or) es
A Bus – Two Buses
A Box – Two Boxes
A Watch – Two Watches

How to Decide s or es
If the noun ends with ch,sh,x,ss we should put es
Church – Churches
Brush – Brushes
Fox – Foxes
Dress – Dresses

Special Noun for Noun
Potato – Potatoes
Tomato – Tomatoes
Volcano – Volcanoes

where as
Photo – Photos

Pronoun (or) Subjective Pronoun
I,He,She, It, You,We,They

Jenny Sings – She Sings
Jack Sings – He Sings
Jenny and Jack Sings – They Sings
The Cat Runs – It Runs
The Dog and Cat Runs – They Runs
My Students Study – They Study
John is Handsome – He is Handsome
Pizza is Delicious – It is Delicious

“Be” verbs indicate a state of being.
Am, is, are

Pronoun + Be VerbContractions
I am – I’m
He is – He’s
She is – She’s
It is – It’s
You are – You’re
We are – We’re
They are – They’re

A Contraction is common way to tell Subjective Pronoun and Be Verb

I’m a Student [Don’t miss a in middle]
It’s a Dog [Don’t miss a in middle]

We’re Students [Many Student so no a In between]
They’re Students [Many Student so no a In between]

Pronouns + Be Verb + Not
I’m not a Student
He’s not a Student
You’re not Students [Note : a is missing in front of Student]
They’re not Students [Note : a is missing in front of Student]

BE verbs comes in front of a question
Am I a teacher

BE verbs follows pronoun in answer
I am not a teacher

Question Singular and Plural
What is it?
It is a box

If there is single box it would be it

What are they?
They are boxes

If there are multiple boxes it would be they

What is it?
It is a cat.

What are they?
They are Cats

Singular – is – Only one thing
Plural – are – Group of thing

This and That
We use this to point to one noun that is close

This is flower

We use that to point to one noun that is away

That is flower

This and That in Question
Is this a Flower?
Is that a Flower?

These and Those
These are Flowers(Closer)
Those are Flowers(Away)

These and Those in Questions
Are these Flowers?(Closer) No they aren’t.
Are those Flowers?(Away) No they aren’t.

Close Far
This That
These Those

Possessive Adjective
Used to tell something belongs to me or Someone else

Subjective Pronoun Possessive Adjective
I My
He His
She Her
It Its
You Your
We Our
They Their

Possessive Adjective
Its and It’s are different
Your and You’re are different
Their and They’re are different

Possessive Pronoun
Something belongs to us (or) something owned by us. Possessive pronoun and possessive adjectives are almost same. In possessive pronoun you don’t stretch much on noun.

Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun
This is his Hat This is his
This is her dress This is hers
This is their house This is theirs
This is their books These are theirs


a/an the
anyone thing specific thing
first time second time
article to be used in front of noun One and Only

A banana is Delicious [All banana is delicious]
The banana is Old[Particular banana is old]

I watched a movie [First Time]
I watched the Movie.[Second Time]

The Sun[One and Only]
The Moon[One and Only]

More Examples
A lion is Dangerous Animal[All lions are dangerous]
It’s a Dog[Talking first time]
The Dog is Cute[Talking Second Time]
It’s an ant[Starts with vowel]
The ant is small[Particular ant]
It’s the moon.The moon is round[One and only moon]

a word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause, as in ‘the man on the platform’, ‘she arrived after dinner’, ‘what did you do it for ?’.

Prepositions to tell where something is

The cat is in the Box
The Cat is on the Chair
The Cat under the Chair

Tells the attribute of a noun, such as sweet, red, or technical.
Size, Shape, Color. Adjectives comes before noun

Its a Black Marker
Its a Blue Bird
Its an ugly ant
They are Red Apples

Both are used to show possessions
Have is used with some pronouns and plural nouns

I have
You have
We have
They have

I have a great English teacher.
You have toothpaste on your chin.
We have a meeting at 12.
Nurses have a difficult job.

Has is used with the third person singular

He has
She has
It has

She has a great personality.
He has a new haircut.
The washing machine has a leak in it.
It has a hole near the door.

Sentence Replaced with Subjective pronoun
The girl has long hair She has long hair
The Boys have caps They have caps
My mother and I have a Car We have a car

I have a Friend
He has an Umbrella
The dog has a bone
It has a bone

In negative sentence we use always have not has.The only thing which needed to be taken care is doesn’t or dont

  1. I don’t have
  2. He doesn’t have
  3. She doesn’t have
  4. It doesn’t have
  5. You don’t have
  6. We don’t have
  7. They don’t have

Do/Does + Have
Does should be followed by he,she,it
Do should be followed by you,we,they

Does he have a friend?
Does she have a friend?
Does it have a friend?

Do you have a friend?
Do we have a friend?
Do they have a friend?

Can I/Could I/May I

  • All are used for getting permission
  • May I is more polite than other two

May I help you?
Can I help you again?
Could I Call you Later?
Could I borrow some money?
Can I go?
May I speak to Mr.Kim?
May I go to the bathroom?

Can I and Could I are almost similar
May I is more polite while speaking to someone who is more authoritative or superior than you

May I help you (Mostly heard from shop keepers)

Borrow/Lend Me
Use lend when you are giving money or items to someone.Use borrow when you are taking money or items from someone

You borrow something from somebody. In other words, you take something from someone for a limited time.

You lend something to somebody. In other words, you give something to someone for a limited time.

Can I borrow Me your pencil?
Can I borrow your pencil?

Can you lend me your pencil? (or)
Is it ok if I borrow your book?
Can I borrow your umbrella?
May I borrow some money?
Please lend me a pen?
I Lent my baking tin to Emily ages ago and I still haven’t got it back.

If you ask someone to give something or if you give someone – Lend or Lent
If you ask to get something to someone – borrow

​How to apologise if you are late to meeting

Instead of offering up a reason or excuse for why you were late, focus your apology on the impact you’ve made or the problems you’ve caused. Say something like “Sorry for keeping you waiting” or “I’m so sorry for taking up more of your time” or even “Thank you for your flexibility.” If you show everyone that you’re sorry for using up their valuable time, your apology will sound much more sincere.

Telephone Etiquette

While Speaking in telephone

  1. You should get acknowledged after telling something
    Shall I Continue
    Am I Clear
    Any Queries
    Are you clear
  2. Instead of telling everything in single stretch chunk your data by using the above keywords.
  3. Try to monitor your client speed of speaking. Try to mirror you client speed of speaking.
  4. Speak Politely

You have to send the mail today
Could you send the mail today

When ever you pick the call
Hi Laura
This is Mugil from Infonovum
Is this a good time to speak to you for 2 Minutes

Leaving Voice Message
You should Tell your name and where you are calling from

Group Discussion Etiquette

  1. In group discussion you should be a active listener.Look at the person who is speaking rather than looking up and down.
  2. If A gives the point, B starts speaking on point given by A while responding to A’s point B should look at every one C,D,E.In other words while responding to someone to someones point look at everyone and speak rather than responding to single person.

Styles of Communication
Low Levels of confidence, Feeling guilt, Avoiding Initiative, Suppressing emotions

Clear about what you feel need and how to achieve it, confident, and open to other ideas. Open body language, give and receive +ve and -ve feedback

Insulating people, Loosing temper, attacking others

Other Common Mistakes in GD
I Have conflict with you – Wrong
I don’t agree with you – Right

Feedback Etiquette

  1. Avoid using you.Pointing fingers to particular person for failure.Start using we as a Team failed
  2. While we were discussing requirements instead of you were telling requirements
  3. We as a Team failed rather than you has failed.

Commonly Made Mistakes in English

I have Eaten (Just Happened)

Wrong – The Car Parking is Opposite to Garden
Right – The Car Parking is Opposite Garden

Ball Park Figure – Approximate Figure

Rain Check – Asking for a Postponement
eg Can I ask for a Rain Check

Out of the woods – Out of Danger.
eg The Project is Out of Woods

In the Loop
eg Keep me in the Loop while mailing the Clients

Rub Shoulders with
eg We need to rub shoulders with our clients to better understand the project

put it in back burner
eg Let us put this thing in back burner until we are done with the Development.

Cutlery Etiquette


“Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind.”

Spelled as
unanimouslyyoo-nan-uh-muh swithout opposition; with the agreement of all people involved.If a group of people are unanimous, they all agree about one particular matter
remunerationmoney paid for work or a service.HR agrees to provide additional remuneration

tushie too sh-eeCommonly accepted cute slang for buttocksGet your tushie over here, now
touchétoo-sheyto admit that an opponent in an argument has made a good pointTouche. You got me.
domiciledom·i·cilethe country that a person treats as their permanent home
intimidatemaking you feel frightened or nervous,to frighten or threaten someone, usually in order to persuade them to do something that you want them to doShe can be very intimidating when she's angry.
Holy cowinformal exclamation of disbelief or surpriseHoly cow, did you see that!?
That was amazing! Holy cow!
delusiona false idea or belief that is caused by mental illnessHe has delusions about how much money he can make at that job
painstakingexpending or showing diligent care and effortpainstaking analysis
correlationa mutual relationship or connection between two or more thingsThere is a direct correlation between poverty and violence
leverage-leverage is the advantageous condition of having a relatively small amount of cost yield a relatively high level of returns
-use (something) to maximum advantage.
she didn't have enough leverage to get the administration
While changing the oil under my car I was unable to get enough leverage in the tight space to turn the oil drain plug with a wrench
The company can leverage its assets to request better terms of agreement
vicariouslytaking the place of another person or thing; acting or serving as a substitute
felt or enjoyed through imagined participation in the experience of others
a vicarious thrill.
vicarious punishment.
panoutend up; conclude.I'm glad to see that your business plan has panned out.
My plans panned out poorly.
articulatehaving or showing the ability to speak fluently and coherently
hunchraise one's shoulders and bend the top of one's body forwardThe mine tunnel narrowed and the pair was forced to hunch down under
cornerstone an important quality or feature on which a particular thing depends or is basedcornerstone of foreign policy
poisedstate of equilabrium or balancea balloon poised on the nose of seal
abstinence self denial, forbearance from any indulgenceits wise to abstain from drinking if you are not keeping well
sobernot intoxicated (or) drunkI am sober for past 6 months
conscientiouslycon-sci-en-tiousdriven by inner senseShe was a conscientious worker, he is a conscientious decision maker
meanderwithour margin or limits, no direction, wander at randomThe kite meandered in the sky,kids meandered in and out
pamperindulge with every attention, comfort, and kindnessWhy not pamper yourself after a hard day with a hot bath scented with oils?
I pamper him as much as possible in all unessential details
accustomedhabitualShe quickly became accustomed to new place
They treated us in their accustomed manner
She got accustomed to stay late
analogysimilarity in features,a comparison between things that have similar featuresI dont see any analogy between your problem and mine
He drew an analogy between the brain and computer
persevereper-see-vearto try to do or continue doing something in a determined way, despite having problemsPerseverance accounts for much of their success.
She was persevering enough to reach her ambition
Despite little support, the women are persevering with their crusade to fight crime
If I had persevered, I probably would have got the job.
taboosomething that is avoided or forbidden for religious or social reasons
prohibited or excluded from use or practice
Everything was on the table, the promos said; no subjects were taboo
Sex education is still considered as taboo in india
For some people, death is a taboo subject.
acquaintedhaving personal knowledge as a result of study, experiencePolice said the thieves were obviously well acquainted with the alarm system at the department store
She acquainted her roommate with my cousin.
The veteran who is well acquainted in his field
paramountchief in importance or impact; supreme;a point of paramount significance.
He would talk to the staff about what was of paramount importance to him
the budget is of paramount importance.
The safety of blood, as we all know, is paramount.
The principles of proportionality and effectiveness are paramount.
thresholdthe floor of an entrance to a building or roomWe are on the threshold of a new era.
one final lesson to learn before he crosses the threshold from darkness to glory
a low threshold for pain
increase/lower/raise the threshold to adjust the tax benifits
equivocateto speak in a way that is intentionally not clear and confusing to other peopleHe answered openly and honestly without hesitation or equivocation
In spite of that clear warning, the authority continued to equivocate
I am not going to equivocate upon this.
unequivocalun-eq-uicalexpressed in a clear and certain wayunequivocal proof
he said, had the party's unequivocal support
The answer is an unequivocal “Yes.”
aversestrongly disliking or oppositionFew people are averse to the idea of a free holiday
I'm not averse to taking risk
i am risk averse
Few politicians are averse to appearing on television.
He is not averse to having a drink now and then
imperativeextremely important or urgentIt's imperative to act now before the problem gets really serious.
It is imperative that we leave now.
The president said education is imperative to fight atgainst poverty
complacencya feeling of quiet pleasure or security, self-satisfactionThere's no room for complacency if we want to stay in this competition
He has a complacent job
I felt certain degree of complacency in his house
fortifiesto make something stronger, especially in order to protect ita fortified house
Let me seek to fortify that claim with some particular examples.
a fruit drink fortified with vitamin C
to fortify an accusation with facts.
These reforms are aimed at fortifying the political system.
embraceaccept, adopt,availWe are always eager to embrace the latest technology
to embrace an opportunity
I hope that you will embrace this as a historic opportunity for change.
We embrace them and care for their safety.
to embrace collaboration as the key to change
converseopposite(or)talkThe staff of any organisation are its best ambassadors or conversely may be its worst
In the US, you drive on the right-hand side of the road, but in the UK the converse applies.
a converse effect/opinion/argument

messanger will be appointed to convrse with you
the bus conductor is conversing with conductors from other buses.
Visiting the older people and conversing with them was enjoyable.
graciousbehaving in a pleasant, polite, calm waya gracious home
You’re a gracious host
He was gracious enough to thank me
a gracious smile
our gracious king
He graciously volunteered to help them
beholdlove to behold their work
menacesolution to any menace, address this menace
on the back burner(i)public services cannot be put on back burner
proportionatethere should be a proportionate work
profuselyaddicted to it profusely
deterdeter young people
to go astray(i)to go in wrong direction
bingeshort period of time where lot of work is donebinge drinking
deprivedto prevent somebody doing or having somethingdeprived of essential goods
inescapableinescapable reality
apparenteasy to seeapparent advantages
offsetcounteractto counteract by equal or opposite force
judiciouscareful and sensible judgementenough to make right choices
free fallsudden drop in value of something which cannot be stoppedgone into free fall
dauntingmaking somebody feel nervous and less confidentdaunting task
coupled withto link one thing to other
reiterateto repeat something you already saidto reiterate my point
deteriorateto become worserapidly deteriorating quality
wreakto damage or destroy
havocsituation where lot of damage, confusion
bizarrelystrage and unusual manner
deep pocketslarge amount of money to spendMNC's has deep pockets to rope in experts
harnesstalent is harnessed
qualmsdoubtwithout any qualms
resonates withto be full of particular quality or feeling
substanciallarge in amount or importance
subtlesu-tlegood at noticing and understandingsubtle difference
rivalcompeting with another person
recuperateto get back money you have speny or lost
obsoleteno longer used because something new has been invented
unprecedentedthat has never done or been known before
competenceability to do something well
emphasizeto give special importance to something
status quosituation as it is now or before
myriadextremly large in numbermyriad of solutions
assertto state something is true
modus operandimethod of working
ethical dilemmachoice to be made between two options, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable fashion
transgressgo beyond the limits of, to break, to go beyond or overstep (a limit)she had transgressed an unwritten social law,to transgress the will of God
snap out of(i)to make an effort to stop feeling unhappy or depressed
corroborateto provide evidence to support statementscorroborates the fact
adoredlove somebody verymuch
adverselyin a way that is negative or unpleasant
onusresponsibility for something
a point at which something, typically something unwelcome, is about to happen; the verge
is in brink of war
scarceinsufficient for the demandscarce commdity
indisputablyin a way that cannot be disagreed or denied
crutcha long stick with a crosspiece at the top, used as a support under the armpit by a lame person.,
a person or thing which help or support but makes you depend on them too much
As an atheist, he believes that religion is just an emotional crutch for the insecure
He uses liquor as a psychological crutch
Martin broke his leg and has been on crutches for the past six weeks.
sets asideto save or keep money or time for particular purposeThe Goverments sets aside some fund
extravagantlacking restraint in spending money or using was rather extravagant to buy both,extravagant gifts like computer games, extravagant claims about the merchandise
compassionsympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others.
a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by misfortune, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the suffering
She listened to him, silent, overcome with compassion, yet very happy withal.
I was hoping she might show a little compassion.
Goverment considers compassionate grounds for the victims
pinchto gripI keep having to pinch myself to make sure I'm not dreaming.
these shoes are too tight, they pinch
Ouch! Stop pinching me
futileincapable of producing any useful result; pointless.It's completely futile trying to reason with him
All my attempts to cheer her up proved futile.
a futile attempt to keep fans from mounting the stage
culminatereach a climax or point of highest development.
to end or cause to end
The discovery culminated many years of research.
weeks of violence culminated in the brutal murder of a magistrate
the star culminates at midnight on about the 30th April
They had an argument, which culminated in Tom getting drunk
self defeatingused to describe something that causes or makes worse the problem it was designed to avoid or solve:He raises the issue in a way that is self-defeating.
His behavior was certainly self-defeating.
The way he coded is self-defeating
Dishonesty is ultimately self-defeating.
notiona belief or idea,
a conception of or belief about something
children have different notions about the roles of their parents
I have no notion what the issues is about
I have only a vague notion of what she does for a living.
clichecli-sheya phrase or opinion that is overused and betrays a lack of original thoughtMy wedding day - and I know it's a cliché - was just the happiest day of my life.
I've learned that the cliche about life not being fair is true
Person with Brain: That's fucking cliche man
detrimental causing harm or damageThese chemicals have a detrimental effect/impact on the environment.
Their decision could be detrimental to the future of the company.
recent policies have been detrimental to the interests of many old people
dignitarya person who has a important personal position
a person considered to be important because of high rank or office.
Several foreign dignitaries attended the ceremony.
His responsibilities included welcoming visiting dignitaries from foreign countries.
The mercurial habits of this dignitary are very difficult to explain.
mercurialsubject to sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind.
a mercurial mind
a mercurial temperament

regimeray-gimethe period of time that a person or system is in power

a government, especially an authoritarian one.
a system or ordered way of doing things.
The old corrupt regime was overthrown.
temperamenttempra-menta person's or animal's nature, especially as it permanently affects their behaviour.
the part of your character that affects your moods and the way you behave:
the combination of mental, physical, and emotional traits of a person; natural predisposition.
In temperament, he was strong, energetic and strong-willed.
However, she has a strange personality and nervous temperament.
The breed is known for its easy-going temperament.
confrontcun-frontto face, meet, or deal with a difficult situation or person
she was confronted by angry crowds who tried to block her way.
He confronted his illness with characteristic bravery.
She decided to confront the burglars.
couch potatoesa person who is sitting long hours in front of TV, Desktop
Disparagedis-pair-ageto criticize someone or something in a way that shows a lack of respectIf you disparage someone or something, you speak about them in a way which shows that you do not have a good opinion of them.

The actor's work for charity has recently been disparaged in the press
He is equally disparaging about the England selection process.
He never missed an opportunity to disparage his competitors
belittleb-littleto make a person or an action seem as if he, she or it is not importantYou gain nothing by belittling him
People belittle us because we are poor
she belittled Amy's riding skills whenever she could
apathybehaviour that shows no interest or energy and shows that someone is unwilling to take action, especially over something importantwidespread apathy among students
voter apathy
There is a growing sense of apathy among teens
Is it ignorance or apathy?
antipathya strong feeling of dislike
the object of a feeling of intense aversion; something to be avoided
The antipathy between Trump and segments of the British
cats were his greatest antipathy
He is a private man with a deep antipathyto/towards the press.
His letters show a deep and intense antipathy toward workers.
I think that we all hope that that antipathy is disappearing and that the two can work together in harmony.
empathythe ability to share someone else's feelings or experiences by imagining what it would be like to be in that person's situationAs the story progresses however she comes to feel a bit of empathy for him.
He photographed them with great dignity and empathy.
That warmth of true empathy makes us feel less alone.
The serious conservation photographer brings to their work a deep empathy for the natural world.
sympathy (an expression of) understanding and care for someone else's sufferingWhen Robert died, I sent a letter of sympathy to his wife.
George was a wonderful man - you have my greatest sympathy.
I feel a lot of sympathy for him
The railway workers came out in sympathy with the miners.
gamutthe whole range of things that can be included in something
The complete range or scope of something
Her stories express the gamut of emotions from joy to despair.
the orchestral gamut
Jonson has run the gamut of hotel work, from porter to owner of a large chain of hotels.
consummateperfect, or complete in every way
a life of consummate happiness
He's a consummate stack developer
consummate skill
The deal was consummated with a handshake.
the property sale is consummated
epitomizeepi-ta-miceto serve as the typical or ideal example of
to be a perfect example of a quality or type of thing

If you say that something or someone epitomizes a particular thing, you mean that they are a perfect example of it
In the book, his characters epitomized the post-war survivals
In our opinion it epitomizes the actor's deepest calling.
The series epitomizes the ultimate quest for search of truth
This student's struggles epitomize the trouble with our schools.
contrarycant-rarythe opposite
Opposite in nature, direction, or meaning
Ideas, attitudes, or reactions that are contrary to each other are completely different from each other.
I was worried that it might be too hard for me but it turned out the contrary was true
he ignored contrary advice and agreed on the deal
I thought you said the film was exciting?" "On the contrary, I nearly fell asleep half way through it!
we now have proof/evidence to the contrary.
perceptibleper-sep-tblethat can be seen, heard, or noticed
There was a barely perceptible movement in his right arm
His pulse was barely perceptible
The sound was barely perceptible.
There was a perceptible change in the audience's mood.
lullto cause someone to feel calm or to feel that they want to sleepHe was lulled to sleep by her soothing voice.
The music lulled him to sleep
for two days there had been a lull in the fighting
conversation lulled for an hour
lullabylull-a-byea quiet song that is sung to children to help them go to sleep

Thalattu in tamil
The character is usually soft, like singing a lullaby.
Volkhova watches over him and sings a lullaby.
absurdstupid and unreasonable, or silly in a humorous wayWhat an absurd thing to say!
Don't be so absurd! Of course I want you to come.
Do I look absurd in this hat?
insidiousgradually and secretly causing harm
Something that is insidious is unpleasant or dangerous and develops gradually without being noticed.
High blood pressure is an insidious condition which has few symptoms.
Cancer is an insidious disease.
They are, in my view, the most insidious of traitors.
Of all these, none is more insidious than propaganda
Workers and workplaces need to be protected from this insidious hazard.
Because the disease can be insidious, the diagnosis is often delayed.
He stressed the insidious effects of the constant companionship of an uneducated wife or husband.
worthwhileuseful, important, or good enough to be a suitable reward for the money or time spent or the effort madeShe considers teaching a worthwhile career.
It's not a worthwhile use of your time.
It wasn't worthwhile for us to have two cars.
I do hope you think it is worthwhile getting up that early.
They are necessary, but they must also be worthwhile
cherishto love, protect, and care for someone or something that is important to you

Cherished - loved
Although I cherish my children, I do allow them their independence
I cherish the memories of the time we spent together.
We cherish the many memories we have of our dear mother.
I have long cherished the idea of that region becoming the manufacturing centre of new energy industries—the clean technologies.
meticulousvery careful and with great attention to every detailHe has done meticulous research
She meticulously gine through the Code.
Meticulous attention to detail
Detailed and meticulous study
Anamorphic projection or drawing that is distorted, though when observed through a particular viewpoint or method, it appears normal
illustrious notably or brilliantly outstanding because of dignity or achievements or actions
widely known and esteemed
The family was illustrious and wealthy
an illustrious judge
an illustrious achievement
dichotomy die-cotamya difference between two completely opposite ideas or thingsThere is often a dichotomy between what politicians say and what they do.
This draws an obvious dichotomy between marine and freshwater systems.
We note that both parts of the dichotomy can be realized.
But that sets up another false dichotomy
nostalgiaa sentimental longing or wistful affection for a period in the past.Some people feel nostalgia for their schooldays.
Talking about our old family holidays has made me feel all nostalgic
Here there was undoubtedly an element of nostalgia