Q1.What is the Difference between Stack and Heap?
Stack vs Heap

Q2.Does Wrapper Classes are immutable Similar to String?
Yes, Wrapper classes are immutable similar to String.

Q3.Does Wrapper Classes would be cached Similar to String Pool for Strings?
Yes.Java has Integer pool for small integers between -128 to 127 so it will behave same for Integer also similar to String Constant pool
java.lang.Boolean store two inbuilt instances TRUE and FALSE, and return their reference if new keyword is not used.
java.lang.Character has a cache for chars between unicodes 0 and 127 (ascii-7 / us-ascii).
java.lang.Long has a cache for long between -128 to +127.
java.lang.String has a whole new concept of string pool.

Q4.How String will behave in memory management incase of String Literal or String Object?

Q5.See the Below Code

class D {
    public static void main(String args[]) {
        Integer b1=127;
        Integer b2=127;
        Integer b3=128;
        Integer b4=128;
        System.out.println(b1==b2);
        System.out.println(b3==b4);
    }
}
true 
false

Why it is so?
If the value p being boxed is true, false, a byte, a char in the range \u0000 to \u007f, or an int or short number between -128 and 127, then let r1 and r2 be the results of any two boxing conversions of p. It is always the case that r1 == r2.

Q6.In which Memory would the following would be created?

int a = 0; 
Integer b = 0;

It Depends whether a and b variables are local variables or fields (static or instance) of an object.

If they are local variables:
a is on the stack.
b is on the stack (a reference) and it refers to an object in the heap.

If they are fields of an instance or class:
a is on the heap (as part of the instance or the class).
b is on the heap (as above) and it refers to an object in the heap.

Q7.Why the value of i didnt change after modify being called?

class Demo 
{ 
    public static void main(String[] args) 
    { 
        Integer i = new Integer(12); 
        System.out.println(i); 
        modify(i); 
        System.out.println(i); 
    } 
  
    private static void modify(Integer i) 
    { 
        i = i + 1; 
    } 
} 

Output

12
12
12
12

The reason again traces back to the Immutability of wrapper class.

i = i + 1;

It does the following:

  1. Unbox i to an int value
  2. Add 1 to that value
  3. Box the result into another Integer object
  4. Assign the resulting Integer to i (thus changing what object i references)

Since object references are passed by value, the action taken in the modified method does not change i that was used as an argument in the call to modify. Thus the main routine still prints 12 after the method returns.

Q8.How the array is stored in the memory?

arr[0] = new String("abc");
arr[1] = new List();

Stack has a single pointer to a location in the heap that contains the array itself. The array itself is just an array of pointers which also point to locations in the heap that contain the objects you reference.

Q9.What is Contagious memory block?
Array are “contiguous”. That means the elements are laid out end-to-end, with no discontinuities and no padding between them (there may be padding inside each element, but not between elements). So an array of 5 4-byte elements looks like this (1 underscore character per byte, the | symbols don’t represent memory).Arrays and ArrayList uses Contagious memory whereas LinkedList uses Non Contagious memory.

Contiguous

Non-Contiguous

Type inference is a feature of Java which provides ability to compiler to look at each method invocation and corresponding declaration to determine the type of arguments.
Java provides improved version of type inference in Java 8.
Here, we are creating arraylist by mentioning integer type explicitly at both side. The following approach is used earlier versions of Java.

List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<Integer>();  

In the following declaration, we are mentioning type of arraylist at one side. This approach was introduce in Java 7. Here, you can left second side as blank diamond and compiler will infer type of it by type of reference variable.

List<Integer> list2 = new ArrayList<>();   

Improved Type Inference
In Java 8, you can call specialized method without explicitly mentioning of type of arguments.

showList(new ArrayList<>());  

Example
You can use type inference with generic classes and methods.

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
public class TypeInferenceExample {
 public static void showList(List < Integer > list) {
  if (!list.isEmpty()) {
   list.forEach(System.out::println);
  } else System.out.println("list is empty");
 }

 public static void main(String[] args) {

  // An old approach(prior to Java 7) to create a list  
  List < Integer > list1 = new ArrayList < Integer > ();
  list1.add(11);
  showList(list1);

  // Java 7    
  List < Integer > list2 = new ArrayList < > (); // You can left it blank, compiler can infer type  
  list2.add(12);
  showList(list2);

  // Compiler infers type of ArrayList, in Java 8  
  showList(new ArrayList < > ());
 }
}

Output

11
12
list is empty

Type inference for Custom Classes

class GenericClass <X> {
 X name;
 public void setName(X name) {
  this.name = name;
 }
 public X getName() {
  return name;
 }
 public String genericMethod(GenericClass < String > x) {
  x.setName("John");
  returnx.name;
 }
}

public class TypeInferenceExample {
 public static void main(String[] args) {
  GenericClass < String > genericClass = new GenericClass < String > ();
  genericClass.setName("Peter");
  System.out.println(genericClass.getName());

  GenericClass < String > genericClass2 = new GenericClass < > ();
  genericClass2.setName("peter");
  System.out.println(genericClass2.getName());

  // New improved type inference  
  System.out.println(genericClass2.genericMethod(new GenericClass < > ()));
 }
}

Output

Peter
peter
John

Lambdas implement a functional interface.Anonymous Inner Classes can extend a class or implement an interface with any number of methods.
Variables – Lambdas can only access final or effectively final.
State – Anonymous inner classes can use instance variables and thus can have state, lambdas cannot.
Scope – Lambdas can’t define a variable with the same name as a variable in enclosing scope.
Compilation – Anonymous compiles to a class, while lambda is an invokedynamic instruction.

Syntax
Lambda expressions looks neat as compared to Anonymous Inner Class (AIC)

public static void main(String[] args) {
    Runnable r = new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            System.out.println("in run");
        }
    };

    Thread t = new Thread(r);
    t.start(); 
}

//syntax of lambda expression 
public static void main(String[] args) {
    Runnable r = ()->{System.out.println("in run");};
    Thread t = new Thread(r);
    t.start();
}

Scope
An anonymous inner class is a class, which means that it has scope for variable defined inside the inner class.

Whereas,lambda expression is not a scope of its own, but is part of the enclosing scope.

Similar rule applies for super and this keyword when using inside anonymous inner class and lambda expression. In case of anonymous inner class this keyword refers to local scope and super keyword refers to the anonymous class’s super class. While in case of lambda expression this keyword refers to the object of the enclosing type and super will refer to the enclosing class’s super class.

//AIC
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        final int cnt = 0; 
        Runnable r = new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                int cnt = 5;    
                System.out.println("in run" + cnt);
            }
        };

        Thread t = new Thread(r);
        t.start();
    }

//Lambda
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        final int cnt = 0; 
        Runnable r = ()->{
            int cnt = 5; //compilation error
            System.out.println("in run"+cnt);};
        Thread t = new Thread(r);
        t.start();
    }

Performance
At runtime anonymous inner classes require class loading, memory allocation, and object initialization and invocation of a non-static method while lambda expression is a compile-time activity and don’t incur extra cost during runtime. So the performance of lambda expression is better as compare to anonymous inner classes.

Reading a File extending Thread API

  1. ReadFile.java has a run() method which implements the reading the file code within the try with resources block
  2. In the main method start method is called over the ReadFile class instance
  3. In thread we have coded is asynchrobnous(order of execution cannot be guaranteed) which we can see from the output below

TestThread.java

package com.mugil.test;

import com.mugil.runnables.ReadFile;

public class TestThread {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		ReadFile objReadFileThread1 = new ReadFile();
		ReadFile objReadFileThread2 = new ReadFile();
		ReadFile objReadFileThread3 = new ReadFile();
				
		objReadFileThread1.start();
		objReadFileThread2.start();
		objReadFileThread3.start();
	}
}

ReadFile.java

package com.mugil.runnables;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileReader;
import java.io.IOException;

public class ReadFile extends Thread {

 public void run() {

  try (BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(new File("E:\\JavaProjects\\JavaThreads\\src\\Sample.txt")))) {
   String line = null;

   while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
    System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " reading line " + line);
   }

  } catch (IOException e) {
   // TODO Auto-generated catch block
   e.printStackTrace();
  }

 }
}

Output

Thread-2 reading line Line1
Thread-0 reading line Line1
Thread-0 reading line Line2
Thread-0 reading line Line3
Thread-1 reading line Line1
Thread-1 reading line Line2
Thread-2 reading line Line2
Thread-1 reading line Line3
Thread-1 reading line Line4
Thread-1 reading line Line5
Thread-0 reading line Line4
Thread-0 reading line Line5
Thread-2 reading line Line3
Thread-2 reading line Line4
Thread-2 reading line Line5

Reading a File implementing Runnable API

  1. Now in the below code the runnable API is implemented rather than extending like Thread
  2. The run() is called over instance of ReadFile rather than start() method
  3. Calling run() method will start the execution of thread in the present running thread rather than creating new Thread for execution which can been seen in output main reading line rather than Thread-N reading line

TestThread.java

package com.mugil.test;

import com.mugil.runnables.ReadFile;

public class TestThread {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		ReadFile objReadFileThread1 = new ReadFile();
		ReadFile objReadFileThread2 = new ReadFile();
		ReadFile objReadFileThread3 = new ReadFile();
				
		objReadFileThread1.run();
		objReadFileThread2.run();
		objReadFileThread3.run();
	}
}

ReadFile.java

public class ReadFile implements Runnable {

 public void run() {

  try (BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(new File("E:\\JavaProjects\\JavaThreads\\src\\Sample.txt")))) {
   String line = null;

   while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
    System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " reading line " + line);
   }

  } catch (IOException e) {
   // TODO Auto-generated catch block
   e.printStackTrace();
  }
 }
}

Output

main reading line Line1
main reading line Line2
main reading line Line3
main reading line Line4
main reading line Line5
main reading line Line1
main reading line Line2
main reading line Line3
main reading line Line4
main reading line Line5
main reading line Line1
main reading line Line2
main reading line Line3
main reading line Line4
main reading line Line5

Methods to Manage thread are available on Thread class not in Runnable. So we can pass the runnable instance as parameter like one below
TestThread.java

.
.
.
Thread objThread = new Thread(runObj);
objThread.start();
.
.

Q1.Optimistic vs. Pessimistic locking
Optimistic Locking is a strategy where you read a record, take note of a version number (other methods to do this involve dates, timestamps or checksums/hashes) and check that the version hasn’t changed before you write the record back. When you write the record back you filter the update on the version to make sure it’s atomic. (i.e. hasn’t been updated between when you check the version and write the record to the disk) and update the version in one hit.If the record is dirty (i.e. different version to yours) you abort the transaction and the user can re-start it.

This strategy is most applicable to high-volume systems and three-tier architectures where you do not necessarily maintain a connection to the database for your session. In this situation the client cannot actually maintain database locks as the connections are taken from a pool and you may not be using the same connection from one access to the next.Optimistic locking doesn’t necessarily use a version number. Other strategies include using (a) a timestamp or (b) the entire state of the row itself. The latter strategy is ugly but avoids the need for a dedicated version column, in cases where you aren’t able to modify the schema.

Pessimistic Locking is when you lock the record for your exclusive use until you have finished with it. It has much better integrity than optimistic locking but requires you to be careful with your application design to avoid Deadlocks. To use pessimistic locking you need either a direct connection to the database (as would typically be the case in a two tier client server application) or an externally available transaction ID that can be used independently of the connection.

In the latter case you open the transaction with the TxID and then reconnect using that ID. The DBMS maintains the locks and allows you to pick the session back up through the TxID.

Optimistic locking is used when you don’t expect many collisions. It costs less to do a normal operation but if the collision DOES occur you would pay a higher price to resolve it as the transaction is aborted.Pessimistic locking is used when a collision is anticipated. The transactions which would violate synchronization are simply blocked.
To select proper locking mechanism you have to estimate the amount of reads and writes and plan accordingly

Optimistic needs a three-tier architectures where you do not necessarily maintain a connection to the database for your session whereas Pessimistic Locking is when you lock the record for your exclusive use until you have finished with it. It has much better integrity than optimistic locking you need either a direct connection to the database.optimistic (versioning) is faster because of no locking but (pessimistic) locking performs better when contention is high and it is better to prevent the work rather than discard it and start over.Optimistic locking works best when you have rare collisions

Q2.What is the Need for Indexing in Database Tables?
An index can be used to efficiently find all rows matching some column in your query and then walk through only that subset of the table to find exact matches. If you don’t have indexes on any column in the WHERE clause, the SQL server have to walk through the whole table and check every row to see if it matches, which may be a slow operation on big tables.The index can also be a UNIQUE index, which means that you cannot have duplicate values in that column, or a PRIMARY KEY which in some storage engines defines where in the database file the value is stored.

Q3.Clustered and Non Clustered Index
A Clustered index determines the physical order of data in a table.There can be only one clustered index per table (the clustered index IS the table). All other indexes on a table are termed non-clustered.A clustered index means you are telling the database to store close values actually close to one another on the disk. This has the benefit of rapid scan / retrieval of records falling into some range of clustered index values.

For example, you have two tables, Customer and Order:

Customer
----------
ID
Name
Address

Order
----------
ID
CustomerID
Price

If you wish to quickly retrieve all orders of one particular customer, you may wish to create a clustered index on the “CustomerID” column of the Order table. This way the records with the same CustomerID will be physically stored close to each other on disk (clustered) which speeds up their retrieval.The index on CustomerID will obviously be not unique, so you either need to add a second field to “uniquify” the index or let the database handle that for you but that’s another story.

Since the clustered index is actually related to how the data is stored, there is only one of them possible per table (although you can cheat to simulate multiple clustered indexes).

A non-clustered index is different in that you can have many of them and they then point at the data in the clustered index. You could have e.g. a non-clustered index at the back of a phone book which is keyed on (town, address)

You can have only one clustered index per table because this defines how the data is physically arranged. If you wish an analogy, imagine a big room with many tables in it. You can either put these tables to form several rows or pull them all together to form a big conference table, but not both ways at the same time. A table can have other indexes, they will then point to the entries in the clustered index which in its turn will finally say where to find the actual data.

Clustered Index

  1. Only one clustered index can be there in a table
  2. Sort the records and store them physically according to the order
  3. Data retrieval is faster than non-clustered indexes
  4. Do not need extra space to store logical structure

Non Clustered Index

  1. There can be any number of non-clustered indexes in a table
  2. Do not affect the physical order. Create a logical order for data rows and use pointers to physical data files
  3. Data insertion/update is faster than clustered index
  4. Use extra space to store logical structure

Q4.What is Staging/Factory table?
Staging table is a temporary table that is used to stage the data for temporary purpose just before loading it to the Target table from the Source Table. As the data resides temporarily, you can do various stuff on that data like
De-duping,Cleansing, Normalizing to multiple tables, De-Normalizing from multiple to a single table and Extrapolating

Q5.Staging vs Temp table?
Staging tables are permanent table just database tables containing your business data in some form or other. Staging is the process of preparing your business data, usually taken from some business application.Temporary tables can be created at runtime and can do the all kinds of operations that one normal table can do. But, based on the table types, the scope is limited. These tables are created inside tempdb database.When we are doing large number of row manipulation in stored procedures. This is useful to replace the cursor. We can store the result set data into a temp table, then we can manipulate the data from there. When we are having a complex join operation.

Permanent table is faster if the table structure is to be 100% the same since there’s no overhead for allocating space and building the table.

Temp table is faster in certain cases (e.g. when you don’t need indexes that are present on permanent table which would slow down inserts/updates)

Q6.What are different types of Tables?
Normal tables are exactly that, physical tables defined in your database.

Local temporary tables are temporary tables that are available only to the session that created them. These tables are automatically destroyed at the termination of the procedure or session that created them.

Global temporary tables are temporary tables that are available to all sessions and all users. They are dropped automatically when the last session using the temporary table has completed. Both local temporary tables and global temporary tables are physical tables created within the tempdb database.

Table variables are stored within memory but are laid out like a table. Table variables are partially stored on disk and partially stored in memory. It’s a common misconception that table variables are stored only in memory. Because they are partially stored in memory, the access time for a table variable can be faster than the time it takes to access a temporary table.

Q7. Procedures vs Functions?

Stored Procedures (SP) Functions (UDF – User Defined Function)
SP can return zero , single or multiple values. Function must return a single value (which may be a scalar or a table).
We can use transaction in SP We can’t use transaction in UDF.
SP can have input/output parameter. Only input parameter
We can call function from SP. We can’t call SP from function.
We can’t use SP in SELECT/ WHERE/ HAVING statement. We can use UDF in SELECT/ WHERE/HAVING statement.
We can use exception handling using Try-Catch block in SP. We can’t use Try-Catch block in UDF.

Q8.Table vs View?
Table is a preliminary storage for storing data and information in RDBMS. A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows.

A view is a virtual table whose contents are defined by a query. Unless indexed, a view does not exist as a stored set of data values in a database. The advantage of a view is that it can join data from several tables thus creating a new view of it

Advantages over table are

  1. We can combine columns/rows from multiple table or another view and have a consolidated view.
  2. Views can be used as security mechanisms by letting users access data through the view, without granting the users permissions to directly access the underlying base tables of the view
  3. It acts as abstract layer to downstream systems, so any change in schema is not exposed and hence the downstream systems doesn’t get affected.
  4. Instead of sending the complex query to the database all the time, you can save the query as a view and then SELECT * FROM view

Q9.Can View could be indexed?
Yes. View can be indexed.The big disadvantage of indexed views is that they are recreated every time the underlying table data changes. That restricts the use of indexed views to data that does not change often, typically in a data warehouse or business intelligence environment.

Q10.Which one is Faster Optimistic or Pessimistic?
Optimistic locking assumes concurrent transactions can complete without affecting each other. So Optimistic locking is faster because no locks are enforced while doing transactions.Optimistic locking does not cause transactions to wait for each other.Optimistic locking possibly causes a transaction to fail, but it does so without any “lock” ever having been taken.
The word “optimistic” derives from exactly the “I will not be taking actual locks because I hope they won’t be needed anyway. If it turns out I was wrong about that, I will accept the inevitable failure.”

In a real world analogy. Let’s say you have to get done 2 very important tasks in one day:

  • Get a passport
  • Get a presentation done

Now, the problem is that task-1 requires you to go to an extremely bureaucratic government office that makes you wait for 4 hours in a line to get your passport. Meanwhile, task-2 is required by your office, and it is a critical task. Both must be finished on a specific day.

Case 1: Sequential Execution
Ordinarily, you will drive to passport office for 2 hours, wait in the line for 4 hours, get the task done, drive back two hours, go home, stay awake 5 more hours and get presentation done.

Case 2: Concurrent Execution
But you’re smart. You plan ahead. You carry a laptop with you, and while waiting in the line, you start working on your presentation. This way, once you get back at home, you just need to work 1 extra hour instead of 5.

In this case, both tasks are done by you, just in pieces. You interrupted the passport task while waiting in the line and worked on presentation. When your number was called, you interrupted presentation task and switched to passport task. The saving in time was essentially possible due to interruptability of both the tasks.

Concurrency, IMO, can be understood as the “isolation” property in ACID. Two database transactions are considered isolated if sub-transactions can be performed in each and any interleaved way and the final result is same as if the two tasks were done sequentially. Remember, that for both the passport and presentation tasks, you are the sole executioner.

Case 3: Parallel Execution
Now, since you are such a smart fella, you’re obviously a higher-up, and you have got an assistant. So, before you leave to start the passport task, you call him and tell him to prepare first draft of the presentation. You spend your entire day and finish passport task, come back and see your mails, and you find the presentation draft. He has done a pretty solid job and with some edits in 2 more hours, you finalize it.

Now since, your assistant is just as smart as you, he was able to work on it independently, without needing to constantly ask you for clarifications. Thus, due to the independentability of the tasks, they were performed at the same time by two different executioners.

Still with me? Alright…

Case 4: Concurrent But Not Parallel
Remember your passport task, where you have to wait in the line? Since it is your passport, your assistant cannot wait in line for you. Thus, the passport task has interruptability (you can stop it while waiting in the line, and resume it later when your number is called), but no independentability (your assistant cannot wait in your stead).

Case 5: Parallel But Not Concurrent
Suppose the government office has a security check to enter the premises. Here, you must remove all electronic devices and submit them to the officers, and they only return your devices after you complete your task.

In this, case, the passport task is neither independentable nor interruptible. Even if you are waiting in the line, you cannot work on something else because you do not have necessary equipment.

Similarly, say the presentation is so highly mathematical in nature that you require 100% concentration for at least 5 hours. You cannot do it while waiting in line for passport task, even if you have your laptop with you.

In this case, the presentation task is independentable (either you or your assistant can put in 5 hours of focused effort), but not interruptible.

Case 6: Concurrent and Parallel Execution
Now, say that in addition to assigning your assistant to the presentation, you also carry a laptop with you to passport task. While waiting in the line, you see that your assistant has created the first 10 slides in a shared deck. You send comments on his work with some corrections. Later, when you arrive back home, instead of 2 hours to finalize the draft, you just need 15 minutes.

This was possible because presentation task has independentability (either one of you can do it) and interruptability (you can stop it and resume it later). So you concurrently executed both tasks, and executed the presentation task in parallel.

Let’s say that, in addition to being overly bureaucratic, the government office is corrupt. Thus, you can show your identification, enter it, start waiting in line for your number to be called, bribe a guard and someone else to hold your position in the line, sneak out, come back before your number is called, and resume waiting yourself.

In this case, you can perform both the passport and presentation tasks concurrently and in parallel. You can sneak out, and your position is held by your assistant. Both of you can then work on the presentation, etc.

Back to Computer Science
In computing world, here are example scenarios typical of each of these cases:

Case 1: Interrupt processing.
Case 2: When there is only one processor, but all executing tasks have wait times due to I/O.
Case 3: Often seen when we are talking about map-reduce or hadoop clusters.
Case 4: I think Case 4 is rare. It’s uncommon for a task to be concurrent but not parallel. But it could happen. For example, suppose your task requires access to a special computational chip which can be accessed through only processor-1. Thus, even if processor-2 is free and processor-1 is performing some other task, the special computation task cannot proceed on processor-2.
Case 5: also rare, but not quite as rare as Case 4. A non-concurrent code can be a critical region protected by mutexes. Once it is started, it must execute to completion. However, two different critical regions can progress simultaneously on two different processors.
Case 6: IMO, most discussions about parallel or concurrent programming are basically talking about Case 6. This is a mix and match of both parallel and concurrent executions.

1 server , 1 job queue (with 5 jobs) -> no concurrency, no parallelism (Only one job is being serviced to completion, the next job in the queue has to wait till the serviced job is done and there is no other server to service it)

1 server, 2 or more different queues (with 5 jobs per queue) -> concurrency (since server is sharing time with all the 1st jobs in queues, equally or weighted) , still no parallelism since at any instant, there is one and only job being serviced.

2 or more servers , one Queue -> parallelism ( 2 jobs done at the same instant) but no concurrency ( server is not sharing time, the 3rd job has to wait till one of the server completes.)

2 or more servers, 2 or more different queues -> concurrency and parallelism

In other words, concurrency is sharing time to complete a job, it MAY take up the same time to complete its job but at least it gets started early. Important thing is , jobs can be sliced into smaller jobs, which allows interleaving.Parallelism is achieved with just more CPUs , servers, people etc that run in parallel.If the resources are shared, pure parallelism cannot be achieved, but this is where concurrency would have it’s best practical use, taking up another job that doesn’t need that resource.

Q1.Difference between Concurrency and Parallelism
Concurrency is when two or more tasks can start, run, and complete in overlapping time periods. It doesn’t necessarily mean they’ll ever both be running at the same instant. For example, multitasking on a single-core machine.In Concurrency Interruptability exists

Parallelism is when tasks literally run at the same time, e.g., on a multicore processor.In Parallelism Independabality exists.

Concurrency                 Concurrency + parallelism
(Single-Core CPU)           (Multi-Core CPU)
 ___                         ___ ___
|th1|                       |th1|th2|
|   |                       |   |___|
|___|___                    |   |___
    |th2|                   |___|th2|
 ___|___|                    ___|___|
|th1|                       |th1|
|___|___                    |   |___
    |th2|                   |   |th2|

In both cases we have concurrency from the mere fact that we have more than one thread running.If we ran this program on a computer with a single CPU core, the OS would be switching between the two threads, allowing one thread to run at a time.If we ran this program on a computer with a multi-core CPU then we would be able to run the two threads in parallel – side by side at the exact same time.

Q2.What is the difference between process and threads
Process:

  1. An executing instance of a program is called a process.
  2. Some operating systems use the term ‘task‘ to refer to a program that is being executed.
  3. A process is always stored in the main memory also termed as the primary memory or random access memory.
  4. Therefore, a process is termed as an active entity. It disappears if the machine is rebooted.
  5. Several process may be associated with a same program.
  6. On a multiprocessor system, multiple processes can be executed in parallel.
  7. On a uni-processor system, though true parallelism is not achieved, a process scheduling algorithm is applied and the processor is scheduled to execute each process one at a time yielding an illusion of concurrency.
  8. Example: Executing multiple instances of the ‘Calculator’ program. Each of the instances are termed as a process.

Thread:

  1. A thread is a subset of the process.
  2. It is termed as a ‘lightweight process’, since it is similar to a real process but executes within the context of a process and shares the same resources allotted to the process by the kernel.
  3. Usually, a process has only one thread of control – one set of machine instructions executing at a time.
  4. A process may also be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently.
  5. Multiple threads of control can exploit the true parallelism possible on multiprocessor systems.
  6. On a uni-processor system, a thread scheduling algorithm is applied and the processor is scheduled to run each thread one at a time.
  7. All the threads running within a process share the same address space, file descriptors, stack and other process related attributes.
  8. Since the threads of a process share the same memory, synchronizing the access to the shared data within the process gains unprecedented importance.

Q3.Why should I prefer Thread over process?
Inter-thread communication (sharing data etc.) is significantly simpler to program than inter-process communication.
Context switches between threads are faster than between processes. That is, it’s quicker for the OS to stop one thread and start running another than do the same with two processes.

Example:
Applications with GUIs typically use one thread for the GUI and others for background computation. The spellchecker in MS Office, for example, is a separate thread from the one running the Office user interface. In such applications, using multiple processes instead would result in slower performance and code that’s tough to write and maintain.

It entirely depends on the design perspective whether to go for a thread or process. When I want to set of logically co-related operations to be carried out parallel. For example, if you run a Notepad++ there will be one thread running in the foreground as an editor and other thread running in background auto saving the document at regular intervals so no one would design a process to do that autosaving task separately.

Q4.What is the difference between Asynchronous vs synchronous execution?
synchronous – When you execute something synchronously, you wait for it to finish before moving on to another task. You are in a queue to get a movie ticket. You cannot get one until everybody in front of you gets one, and the same applies to the people queued behind you.

asynchronous -When you execute something asynchronously, you can move on to another task before it finishes. i.e. You are in a restaurant with many other people. You order your food. Other people can also order their food, they don’t have to wait for your food to be cooked and served to you before they can order. In the kitchen, restaurant workers are continuously cooking, serving, and taking orders. People will get their food served as soon as it is cooked.

Synchronous (one thread):

Single Thread  |--------A--------||--------B--------|                  

Synchronous (Multi-Threaded):

Thread A |--------A--------|
Thread B                   |--------B--------|
Thread C                                     |--------C--------|

ASynchronous (One thread):

           A-Start ------------------------------------------ A-End   
               | B-Start -----------------------------------------|--- B-End   
	       |    |      C-Start ------------------- C-End      |      |   
	       |    |       |                           |         |      |
  	       V    V       V                           V         V      V      
Single thread->|--A-|---B---|--C-|-A-|-C-|--A--|-B-|--C---|---A---|--B-->|

Asynchronous (Multi-Threaded):

Thread A ->     |----A-----|
Thread B ----->     |-----B-----------| 
Thread C --------->     |-------C----------|

Q5.What is Difference between thread, process and Tasks?
Process
A process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently.Process-based multitasking enables you to run the Java compiler at the same time that you are using a text editor. In employing multiple processes with a single CPU,context switching between various memory context is used. Each process has a complete set of its own variables.

Process
A thread is a basic unit of CPU utilization, consisting of a program counter, a stack, and a set of registers. A thread of execution results from a fork of a computer program into two or more concurrently running tasks. The implementation of threads and processes differs from one operating system to another, but in most cases, a thread is contained inside a process. Multiple threads can exist within the same process and share resources such as memory, while different processes do not share these resources.

Tasks
A task is a set of program instructions that are loaded in memory.

Q6.What is Interprocess Communication?
Interprocess communication (IPC) is a set of programming interfaces that allow a programmer to coordinate activities among different program processes that can run concurrently in an operating system. This allows a program to handle many user requests at the same time. Since even a single user request may result in multiple processes running in the operating system on the user’s behalf, the processes need to communicate with each other. The IPC interfaces make this possible. Each IPC method has its own advantages and limitations so it is not unusual for a single program to use all of the IPC methods.

Java interprocess communication is based at the lowest level on turning state, requests, etc into sequences of bytes that can be sent as messages or as a stream to another Java process. You can do this work yourself, or you can use a variety of “middleware” technologies of various levels of complexity to abstract away the implementation details. Technologies that may be used include, Java object serialization, XML, JSON, RMI, CORBA, SOAP / “web services”, message queing, and so on.

Q7.Interprocess Communication vs Inter-Thread Communication?
The fundamental difference is that threads live in the same address spaces, but processes live in the different address spaces. This means that inter-thread communication is about passing references to objects and changing shared objects, but processes is about passing serialized copies of objects.In practice, Java interthread communication can be implemented as plain Java method calls on a shared object with appropriate synchronization thrown in.

Inter-Thread Communication = threads inside the same JVM talking to each other.Threads inside the same JVM can use pipelining through lock-free queues to talk to each other with nanosecond latency.

Inter-Process Communication (IPC) = threads inside the same machine but running in different JVMs talking to each other.Threads in different JVMs can use off-heap shared memory (usually acquired through the same memory-mapped file) to talk to each other with nanosecond latency.

Q8.What is Starvation?
Starvation describes a situation where a thread is unable to gain regular access to shared resources and is unable to make progress. This happens when shared resources are made unavailable for long periods by “greedy” threads. For example, suppose an object provides a synchronized method that often takes a long time to return. If one thread invokes this method frequently, other threads that also need frequent synchronized access to the same object will often be blocked.

Q9.What is Livelock?
A thread often acts in response to the action of another thread. If the other thread’s action is also a response to the action of another thread, then livelock may result. As with deadlock, livelocked threads are unable to make further progress. However, the threads are not blocked — they are simply too busy responding to each other to resume work. This is comparable to two people attempting to pass each other in a corridor: Alphonse moves to his left to let Gaston pass, while Gaston moves to his right to let Alphonse pass. Seeing that they are still blocking each other, Alphone moves to his right, while Gaston moves to his left. They’re still blocking each other, so…

Q10.Preemptive vs Non-Preemptive Scheduling
Scheduling is order of executuion of threads. JVM would simply use the underlying threading mechanism provided by the OS.
Non-preemptive Scheduling: The current process releases the CPU either by terminating or by switching to the waiting state. (Used in MS Windows family)

Advantages are Decreases turnaround time and Does not require special HW (e.g., timer)
Disadvantages are Limited choice of scheduling algorithm

Preemptive Scheduling: The current process needs to involuntarily release the CPU when a more important process is inserted into the ready queue or once an allocated CPU time has elapsed. (Used in Unix and Unix-like systems).This is determined by priority assigned to thread.Despite priority JVM may decide to execute thread of lower priority inorder to avoid starvation.

Advantages are No limitation on the choice of scheduling algorithm
Disadvantages are Additional overheads (e.g., more frequent context switching, HW timer, coordinated access to data, etc.)

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Spring MVC uses HttpMessageConverter to convert the Http request to an object representation and back.Spring Framework then uses one of the Jackson message converters to marshall and unmarshall Java Objects to and from JSON over HTTP.Spring will use the “Accept” header to determine the media type that it needs to respond with and uses the “Content-Type” header to determine the media type of the request body.

Default Message Converters in Spring MVC
StringHttpMessageConverter: it converts Strings from the HTTP request and response.
FormHttpMessageConverter: it converts form data to/from a MultiValueMap.
ByteArrayHttpMessageConverter: it converts byte arrays from the HTTP request and response.
MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter: it converts JSON from the HTTP request and response.
Jaxb2RootElementHttpMessageConverter: it converts Java objects to/from XML.
SourceHttpMessageConverter: it converts javax.xml.transform.Source from the HTTP request and response.
AtomFeedHttpMessageConverter: it converts Atom feeds.
RssChannelHttpMessageConverter: it converts RSS feeds.

Customizing HttpMessageConverters with Spring MVC

Annotation Usage
@RequestMapping
@RequestMapping(value = "/{name}", 
                method = RequestMethod.GET, 
                consumes="application/json"
                produces ="application/json",
                headers={"name=pankaj", "id=1"})
path (or) (or) name (or) and value: which URL the method is mapped to
method: compatible HTTP methods
params: filters requests based on presence, absence, or value of HTTP parameters
headers: filters requests based on presence, absence, or value of HTTP headers
consumes: which media types the method can consume in the HTTP request body
produces: which media types the method can produce in the HTTP response body
@RequestBody
@RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.POST)
@ResponseBody
public HttpStatus something(@RequestBody MyModel myModel) 
{
    return HttpStatus.OK;
}
with @RequestBody, Spring will bind the incoming HTTP request body(for the URL mentioned in @RequestMapping for that method) to that parameter. While doing that, Spring will [behind the scenes] use HTTP Message converters to convert the HTTP request body into domain object [deserialize request body to domain object], based on Accept header present in request.
@ResponseBody
@RequestMapping(value = "/user/all", method = RequestMethod.GET)
public @ResponseBody List<User> listAllUsers() {
    return userService.findAllUsers();
}
with @ResponseBody, Spring will bind the return value to outgoing HTTP response body. While doing that, Spring will [behind the scenes] use HTTP Message converters to convert the return value to HTTP response body [serialize the object to response body], based on Content-Type present in request HTTP header
@RequestParam
http://localhost:8080/springmvc/hello/101?param1=10¶m2=20

public String getDetails(
    @RequestParam(value="param1", required=true) String param1,
        @RequestParam(value="param2", required=false) String param2){
...
}
@RequestParam is to obtain an parameter from the URI as well.@RequestParam annotation used for accessing the query parameter values from the request
defaultValue – This is the default value as a fallback mechanism if request is not having the value or it is empty.
name – Name of the parameter to bind
required – Whether the parameter is mandatory or not. If it is true, failing to send that parameter will fail.
value – This is an alias for the name attribute
@PathVariable
'http://localhost:8080/springmvc/hello/101?param1=10&param2=20

@RequestMapping("/hello/{id}")    public String getDetails(@PathVariable(value="id") String id,
    @RequestParam(value="param1", required=true) String param1,
    @RequestParam(value="param2", required=false) String param2){
.......
}

@GetMapping("/user/{firstName}/{lastName}")
   @ResponseBody
   public String handler(@MatrixVariable("firstName") String firstName,
         @MatrixVariable("lastName") String lastName
         ) {

      return "<br>Matxrix variable <br> "
            + "firstName =" + firstName +"<br>"
            + "lastName =" + lastName;
   }
@PathVariable is to obtain some placeholder from the URI
@MatrixVariable – a name-value pair within a path segment is referred as matrix variable. Matrix variables can appear in any path segment, each variable separated with a semicolon (;) and multiple values are separated by comma (,)
i.e.
http://www.example.com/employee/Mike;salary=45000;dept=HR
http://www.example.com/car/Audi;color=RED,BLACK,WHITE

@RequestHeader
@Controller
public class HelloController {
 @RequestMapping(value = "/hello.htm")
 public String hello(
   @RequestHeader(value="Accept") String accept,
   @RequestHeader(value="Accept-Language") String acceptLanguage,
   @RequestHeader(value="User-Agent", defaultValue="foo") String userAgent,
   HttpServletResponse response) {

  System.out.println("accept: " + accept);
  System.out.println("acceptLanguage: " + acceptLanguage);
  System.out.println("userAgent: " + userAgent);
  
  return null;
 }
}
Reading http requestheader is written in HelloController
The advantage of using Spring @RequestHeader is that it will automatically throw an exception like HTTP Status 400 – Missing request header ‘X’ for method parameter of type, if the header is NOT sent in the input request (by setting required=true)

@RequestHeader for facilitating use to get the header details easily in our controller class

GET

  1. GET is idempotent and can be requested any number of times
  2. GET requests can be cached, can be distributed & shared
  3. GET request is less secured compared to POST.

POST

  1. Used to Create a resource
  2. Post is not idempotent.x++ is not idempotent
  3. POST is NOT idempotent. So if you retry the request N times, you will end up having N resources with N different URIs created on server.

PUT

  1. Used to Create or Modify a resource
  2. PUT is idempotent, so if you PUT an object twice, it has no effect.
  3. x=5 is idempotent.You can PUT a resource whether it previously exists, or not (eg, to Create, or to Update)!

When to use Put and Post
You can use both PUT or POST for creating the resource until the client decides the resource location in the Server.But if the server decides the resource location using

POST /questions/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com/

Note that the following is an error:

POST /questions/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com/

If the URL is not yet created, you should not be using POST to create it while specifying the name. This should result in a ‘resource not found’ error because does not exist yet. You should PUT the resource on the server first.

You could though do something like this to create a resources using POST:

POST /questions HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com/

Note that in this case the resource name is not specified, the new objects URL path would be returned to you.

PUT is Used to create a resource, or overwrite it. While you specify the resources new URL.

PUT /questions/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com/

To overwrite an existing resource:

PUT /questions/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com/

PATCH
Patch request says that we would only send the data that we need to modify without modifying or effecting other parts of the data. Ex: if we need to update only the first name, we pass only the first name.PATCH – HTTP.PATCH can be used when the client is sending one or more changes to be applied by the server. The PATCH method requests that a set of changes described in the request entity be applied to the resource identified by the Request-URI. The set of changes is represented in a format called a patch document.

In PUT request, the enclosed entity would be considered as the modified version of a resource which residing on server and it would be replaced by this modified entity.

In PATCH request, enclosed entity contains the set of instructions that how the entity which residing on server, would be modified to produce a newer version.

DELETE

DELETE is pretty easy to understand. It is used to delete a resource identified by a URI.On successful deletion, return HTTP status 200 (OK) along with a response body, perhaps the representation of the deleted item (often demands too much bandwidth), or a wrapped response (see Return Values below). Either that or return HTTP status 204 (NO CONTENT) with no response body. In other words, a 204 status with no body, or the JSEND-style response and HTTP status 200 are the recommended responses.